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In https://christianity.stackexchange.com/questions/68291/in-acts-2510-paul-appeals-to-caesar-what-aspect-of-roman-law-citizenship-was-h:

About two decades before the birth of Christ, Rome passed a law, the lex de ui publica, which forbade any magistrate to kill, scourge, chain, torture, or even sentence a Roman citizen who had announced his intention to appeal, or prevent him from going to Rome to lodge his appeal there within a fixed time.

Acts 25:11 If, however, I am guilty of doing anything deserving death, I do not refuse to die. But if the charges brought against me by these Jews are not true, no one has the right to hand me over to them. I appeal to Caesar!"

Did it mean that Paul would actually see the Emperor in person?

According to https://finestofthewheat.org/the-judicial-adventures-of-paul-the-apostle/:

Assuming (for a moment) that Paul’s case did come to trial, it is very unlikely that the case was heard by Caesar Nero. The Emperor, according to Tacitus, had been quite firm in the matter of rendering judgments: “‘He would not’ [Nero] said, ‘be judge in all cases…’.”54 Up until a.d. 62 or 63 he made no exceptions, and only a few after that time, up until the burning of Rome. Appeals cases were apparently assigned to various officials.

Could Paul withdraw it after saying it?

Acts 26:32 Agrippa said to Festus, "This man could have been set free if he had not appealed to Caesar."

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What were the legal consequences of “I appeal to Caesar!” in Acts 25:11?

Acts 25:8-12 (NASB)

8 While Paul said in his own defense, “I have committed no offense either against the Law of the Jews or against the temple or against Caesar.” 9 But Festus, wishing to do the Jews a favor, answered Paul and said, “Are you willing to go up to Jerusalem and [a]stand trial before me on these charges?” 10 But Paul said, “I am standing before Caesar’s tribunal, where I ought to be tried. I have done no wrong to the Jews, as you also very well know.

11 If, then, I am a wrongdoer and have committed anything worthy of death, I do not refuse to die;but if none of those things is true of which these men accuse me, no one can hand me over to them. I appeal to Caesar.” 12 Then when Festus had conferred with his council, he answered, “You have appealed to Caesar, to Caesar you shall go.”

Festus was reluctant to give a decision on the matter, and Paul seing that a trial in Jerusalem held virtually no hope of justice, Paul therefore made his petion (I appeal to Caesar) that is to be judged by the highest court of the empire. In Rome Paul would be tried by an imperial representative and be subject to Roman law.

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Acts 25:10 Paul replied, “I am standing before the judgment seat of Caesar, where I ought to be tried. I have done nothing wrong to the Jews, as you yourself know very well. 11If, however, I am guilty of anything worthy of death, I do not refuse to die. But if there is no truth to their accusations against me, no one has the right to hand me over to them. I appeal to Caesar!”

12 Then Festus conferred with his council and replied, “You have appealed to Caesar. To Caesar you will go!”

Acts 26:32 Agrippa said to Festus, "This man could have been set free if he had not appealed to Caesar."

Could Paul withdraw it after saying it?

If he had, then he would be handed over to be tried by the Sanhedrin. He had to be tried one way or another.

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