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In Romans 5-6, we can see how Paul arrives at the idea of being in Adam and then in Christ through faith in Jesus.

But then in Romans 8:9-10, we find the use of Christ in you. How does Paul arrive at this idea?

Romans 8:9-10

You, however, are not in the flesh but in the Spirit, if in fact the Spirit of God dwells in you. Anyone who does not have the Spirit of Christ does not belong to him. But if Christ is in you, although the body is dead because of sin, the Spirit is life because of righteousness.

  • Paul does not suggest that Christ is in Adam. Adam is used as teaching device in Rom 5. – Dottard Aug 2 at 12:27
  • @Dottard I didn't say that Christ is in Adam. We were in Adam, then we through faith in Jesus were placed in Christ. Hope that clears things up. – Steve Aug 2 at 13:32
  • John 17:26 I have made you known to them, and will continue to make you known in order that the love you have for me may be in them and that I myself may be in them." – Tony Chan Aug 2 at 21:26
  • @TonyChan I've considered the passages of John, but his works were written after Paul died, so he is not Paul's source. – Steve Aug 3 at 13:39
  • Paul could have heard it from Barnabas who heard it from the disciples in Jerusalem. – Tony Chan Aug 3 at 13:53
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Paul calls this truth of "Christ in you" a mystery that was once hidden but is now revealed.

24 Now I rejoice in what I am suffering for you, and I fill up in my flesh what is still lacking in regard to Christ’s afflictions, for the sake of his body, which is the church. 25 I have become its servant by the commission God gave me to present to you the word of God in its fullness— 26 the mystery that has been kept hidden for ages and generations, but is now disclosed to the Lord’s people. 27 To them God has chosen to make known among the Gentiles the glorious riches of this mystery, which is Christ in you, the hope of glory. (Colossians 1:24-27)

Hidden can mean one of three things:

  • God never told anybody about it before
  • God told a few people, but they never wrote it down or their writings were lost
  • God told people, it is in the Old Testament, but hidden in a parable or other wise saying

Disclosed can mean one of several things:

  1. Jesus disclosed it first to his disciples, so it is in the Gospels
  2. Jesus disclosed it first to Paul, who now shares it with the church for the first time
  3. The Holy Spirit unlocked the Bible mystery for believers (as promised, since he is the Counsleor), revealing it independently to multiple believers, of which Paul may have been one
  4. The Holy Spirit revealed it directly to Paul, who now shares it with the church
  5. Jesus and the Holy Spirit revealed this truth to many people using all the ways above and the church recognized the truth because so many had gotten this message and it was consistent

Jesus told the Disciples. See John 15:1-8.

15 “I am the true vine, and my Father is the gardener. 2 He cuts off every branch in me that bears no fruit, while every branch that does bear fruit he prunes so that it will be even more fruitful. 3 You are already clean because of the word I have spoken to you. 4 Remain in me, as I also remain in you. No branch can bear fruit by itself; it must remain in the vine. Neither can you bear fruit unless you remain in me.

5 “I am the vine; you are the branches. If you remain in me and I in you, you will bear much fruit; apart from me you can do nothing. 6 If you do not remain in me, you are like a branch that is thrown away and withers; such branches are picked up, thrown into the fire and burned. 7 If you remain in me and my words remain in you, ask whatever you wish, and it will be done for you. 8 This is to my Father’s glory, that you bear much fruit, showing yourselves to be my disciples.

Jesus told Paul. See Romans 16:25-27, Galatians 1:11-12.

Paul made much of the fact that he received his Gospel stright from Jesus, not from the other Apostles. Since this "mystery" he refers to in many of his letters, it must be part of his direct revelation from Jesus.

11 I want you to know, brothers and sisters, that the gospel I preached is not of human origin. 12 I did not receive it from any man, nor was I taught it; rather, I received it by revelation from Jesus Christ. (Galatians 1:11-12)

25 Now to him who is able to establish you in accordance with my gospel, the message I proclaim about Jesus Christ, in keeping with the revelation of the mystery hidden for long ages past, 26 but now revealed and made known through the prophetic writings by the command of the eternal God, so that all the Gentiles might come to the obedience that comes from faith— 27 to the only wise God be glory forever through Jesus Christ! Amen. (Romans 16:25-27)

Observe that Paul says part of the process whereby this truth came to him involved coming to a better undersrtanding of the prophetic writings. Thus it was written, but hidden.

The Holy Spirit Revealed it to the Church

Peter was called to share the Gospel with Cornelius, a Gentile. This idea of "Christ in us" is tied up with the new teaching that the same blessing is available to both Jew and Gentile, as Paul uses mystery to describe both ideas.

Jesus revealed it directly to others.

Of course, when Jesus walked on the Road to Emmaus with Cleopas and another (possibly his wife) in Acts, he revealed many mysteries hidden in Scripture. This could have been one of them.

If we ask this question of Paul, we must also ask it of John. How did he learn about the indwelling Christ?

24 The one who keeps God’s commands lives in him, and he in them. And this is how we know that he lives in us: We know it by the Spirit he gave us. (1 John 3:24)

According to John it is the Holy Spirit that reveals to us the reality that Jesus lives in us.

Conclusion:

  • From Paul, we know the prophetic writings of Scripture were a source of this idea.
  • From John's letter, we know the Holy Spirit reveals this truth to us, hence must have revealed it to Paul.
  • From John's Gospel, we know that Jesus directly taught this idea to his disciples, and Jesus directly taught Paul on teh road to Damascus and in visions and dreams.
  • From Acts, we know that in a dream, part of this idea was revealed to Peter.
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It is not a derivative of Paul's philological research into Holy Writings, but Paul's personal experience of salvatory grace working in him; yet "personal" not in the shallow modern or even shallower postmodern sense of some idiosyncratic private experience in one's 'privacy', but a personal experience that Paul asserts to be experienced by all Christians, for Christian is that only in virtue of Christ's power working in them powerfully (cf. Col. 1:29).

Only through this power or grace, which is, kind of an external benign "infection" in humans, can humans overcome the infection of sin that has entered humanity through Adam (Romans 5:12). That's why Paul uses this counterposition of Adam and the New Adam-Christ, for through the first the infection of sin (and its consequence - death) entered the humanity, whereas through the Second the benign infection of grace entered humanity (cf. John 1:17) through which the first deadening infection could be neutralised, but not only neutralised but totally vanquished and eclipsed superfluously, with a result of the eternal life in the bliss impossible to be expressed in human tongue.

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