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[Luke 24:44-46 ESV] 44Then he said to them, “These are my words that I spoke to you while I was still with you, that everything written about me in the Law of Moses and the Prophets and the Psalms must be fulfilled.” 45Then he opened their minds to understand the Scriptures, 46and said to them, “Thus it is written, that the Christ should suffer and on the third day rise from the dead,

[1Cor 15:2-4 ESV] 2and by which you are being saved, if you hold fast to the word I preached to you— unless you believed in vain. 3For I delivered to you as of first importance what I also received: that Christ died for our sins in accordance with the Scriptures, 4that he was buried, that he was raised on the third day in accordance with the Scriptures,

Where is it written that the Christ would suffer and rise again from the dead on the third day?

7 Answers 7

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"it is written" refers to the OT as there was no NT yet.

Matthew 12:39-40 An evil and adulterous generation seeks after a sign, and no sign will be given except the sign of the prophet Jonah. For as Jonah was three days and three nights in the belly of the great fish, so will the Son of Man be three days and three nights in the heart of the earth.

Jesus spoke about Jonah as a sign of His impending death, burial and resurrection.

Jonah 1:17 The Lord had prepared a great fish to swallow Jonah. And Jonah was in the belly of the fish three days and three nights.

Jonah speaks of more than being in a great fish; he speaks of Sheol and 'the pit' as if he was dead. Clearly, he wasn't dead if he could 'pray', but the type of Jesus holds.

That Jonah tried to 'run away' from God's purposes also reminds us of Jesus asking (with much more integrity) if the Father could take away the cup of his suffering.

While there is no direct 'it is written' in OT, Jesus was joining the dots for his hearers by reminding them of significant past events and how they were a 'type' foreshadowing a future event - being played out before their eyes in Jesus.

Everything that had happened was some kind of type pointing to Jesus - many were oblivious to these connections until Jesus pointed out how they were re-imagined in him.

Isaac's sacrifice for example is a type of the father sacrificing his 'only' son. (Which apparently also transpired over 3 days - Abraham receiving his son 'back from the dead' Genesis 22:4)

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    Thanks for the response. So as far as you know it isn't written in the OT? The only OT part you quote is Jonah 1:17 but that doesn't mention the third day (it is three days and three nights), nor does it mention dying, nor does it mention the Christ.
    – Glenn
    Commented Jul 30, 2020 at 7:40
  • it infers dying as he askes to be released from Sheol - not a fish.
    – Steve
    Commented Jul 30, 2020 at 8:21
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    thank you again, I hadn't realised he was supposed to have died, I had assumed he was being poetic.
    – Glenn
    Commented Jul 30, 2020 at 8:46
  • He is, but as this was a type of what was to come, just as was Isaac's sacrifice (and a zillion other things), there is intended a figurative parallel with what Jesus experienced - so the language and events tie in quite closely. Obviously Isaac didn't die, like Jonah also, but God provided for the need.
    – Steve
    Commented Nov 10, 2020 at 3:28
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    Does Jonah refer to a Messiah suffering for sin? Commented Aug 13, 2021 at 14:16
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It is written in Hosea 6

1 “Come, let us return to the Lord.
He has torn us to pieces
but he will heal us;
he has injured us
but he will bind up our wounds.
2 After two days he will revive us;
on the third day he will restore us,
that we may live in his presence.
3Let us acknowledge the Lord;
let us press on to acknowledge him.
As surely as the sun rises,
he will appear;
he will come to us like the winter rains,
like the spring rains that water the earth."

Hosea targeted Israel for this prophecy but it was a double prophecy fulfilled in Christ finally.

Luke 9:22 And he said, "The Son of Man must suffer many things and be rejected by the elders, the chief priests and the teachers of the law, and he must be killed and on the third day be raised to life."

Isaiah 49:3 He said to me, "You are my servant, Israel, in whom I will display my splendor."

Jesus fulfilled above by being the true vine, true Israel.

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    Thanks for the response, but the writing in Hosea 6 seems to be referring to what the people brought down in Hosea 5 would be saying. People who had turned away from God. Both verses are about a group that had turned away from God returning to God. It doesn't mention the Christ nor anyone being killed. So I'm not sure how you think it refers to Jesus (who I wasn't thinking ever turned away from God). Jesus surely couldn't have been referring to Luke 9:22 either.
    – Glenn
    Commented Aug 2, 2020 at 16:46
  • You are right. It is not an absolute match. I weight the positives and negatives factors plus spiritual discernment.
    – user35953
    Commented Aug 2, 2020 at 16:55
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    I would have thought whether it states that the Christ would suffer and rise again from the dead on/after the third day was a yes or no issue. Either it does or it doesn't. Are you saying that you think it does?
    – Glenn
    Commented Aug 2, 2020 at 17:01
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    That's fine, I was just wondering whether you thought Hosea 6:1-2 stated that Christ would suffer and rise again from the dead on/after the third day.
    – Glenn
    Commented Aug 2, 2020 at 19:14
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    Micah 5:2 is where Messiah is said to be born in Bethlehem. Later Micah talks about repelling the Assyrians. Does the fact that Rome, not the Assyrians, occupied Judea nullify this prophecy? No. (Although the conquest of Judea was initiated from the Roman province of Syria under General Pompey.) Prophecy uses relatable ideas and types as analogy, which tends to obscure the message. Sometimes it seems to be intended that the true meaning of the prophecy is only clearly understood after the fact.
    – wberry
    Commented Nov 10, 2020 at 3:25
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Jesus says in verse 44 of the same chapter :

These are the words which I spake unto you, while I was yet with you, that all things must be fulfilled, which were written in the law of Moses, and in the prophets, and in the psalms, concerning me. [Luke 24:44, KJV]

Jesus alludes to all that he has taught them in all the time he spent with them. And he alludes to all the scriptures : the law of Moses, the prophets and the psalms - all of the written documentation of scripture.

Thus it is written . . . . .

Jesus is not quoting any particular place. He is summarising all that is written.

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    Thanks for the response. So what parts where you thinking that when taken together stated "that the Christ would suffer and rise again from the dead the third day"?
    – Glenn
    Commented Aug 2, 2020 at 16:48
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Michael Brown writes in his Jewish Objections to Jesus, Vol. 3. Messianic Prophecy Objections.

4.38. Paul claimed that the Hebrew Scriptures prophesied the resurrection of the Messiah on the third day. Nowhere in our Bible is such a prophecy found.
Paul’s exact words are: “For what I received I passed on to you as of first importance: that Messiah died for our sins according to the Scriptures, that he was buried, that he was raised on the third day according to the Scriptures …” (1 Cor. 15:3–4).
As a Jew schooled in the Scriptures from his childhood, Paul was not thinking of just one passage but of several passages that pointed to the Messiah’s resurrection on the third day. And remember: Paul was not trying to “pull a fast one” on anybody! And no one had pulled a fast one on him either. This is the tradition he received, and if someone taught him something that was not in his Bible, he would have known it immediately. In fact, when we study the Tanakh, we see that the third day is often the day of completion and climax—and so it was with the Messiah’s death and resurrection!

We should first look at some prophecies that make reference to restoration—or rescue from death—on the third day. • Hosea 6:1–2 states, “Come, let us return to the LORD. He has torn us to pieces but he will heal us; he has injured us but he will bind up our wounds. After two days he will revive us; on the third day he will restore us, that we may live in his presence.”
This is a word given to Israel as a whole, but the sequence is there: full restoration on the third day!352

Footnote 352 Note that the Septuagint’s rendering of Hosea 6:2 reads, “On the third day we shall be raised up and we shall live,” while the Targum renders, “In the day of the resurrection of the dead he will raise us up that we may live,” avoiding the issue of the third day entirely—possibly because of the use of the text by the early followers of Jesus. For discussion on the significance of these translations as related to the question of resurrection on the third day, see Anthony C. Thiselton, The First Epistle to the Corinthians: A Commentary on the Greek Text (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 2000), 1195–97, with reference to G. Delling, “hemera,” TDNT, 2:949 (more broadly, 2:943–53).

• According to Genesis 22:4, it was on the third day that Abraham arrived at Mount Moriah and prepared to sacrifice his son Isaac—that important event known in later Rabbinic tradition as the Akedah, “the binding (of Isaac)”—an event seen as a Messianic foreshadowing by the rabbis (see above, 4.1). In similar fashion, the Letter to the Hebrews notes, “Abraham reasoned that God could raise the dead, and figuratively speaking, he did receive Isaac back from death” (Heb. 11:19)—and this took place on the third day.
• This was the time set for the miraculous healing of King Hezekiah, who as a son of David serves as somewhat of a Messianic prototype (cf. also b. Sanhedrin 94a, 98a): “Go back and tell Hezekiah, the leader of my people, ‘This is what the LORD, the God of your father David, says: I have heard your prayer and seen your tears; I will heal you. On the third day from now you will go up to the temple of the LORD’ ” (2 Kings 20:5; cf. also v. 8).
• Jonah was in the belly of the fish for three days (a deathlike experience, to be sure!— cf. Jonah 2:1–9) before being spit out on dry land, and hence saved from his watery tomb (Jonah 1:17; 2:10). Jesus himself makes reference to this event in the context of his death and resurrection (see, e.g., Matt. 12:40) [...]

Based on this biblical data, the German biblical scholar Roland Gradwohl argued that “ ‘three days’ is a stereotyped phrase used by the Old Testament in describing a situation when something will be fulfilled or completed within a useful and reasonable time.… The ‘third day’ is used to describe the moment when an event attains its climax.”354 Another German scholar, K. Lehmann, wrote an entire volume on the subject of resurrection on the third day, pointing to passages such as Exodus 19:11, 16; Genesis 22:4; 2 Kings 20:5; Esther 5:1; Hosea 6:2 (all cited above) as evidence that the third day was associated with special divine activity, something that caught the attention of the ancient rabbis as well.355 These insights, coupled with some key verses about restoration, salvation, or rescue from death on the third day, give Paul the right to say that the Messiah rose from the dead on the third day according to the Scriptures. There would have been no day more suitable than this, from the viewpoint of the Word of God.356

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    Hosea 6 is about Israel - not the Messiah. and the purpose of Isaac was NOT to encourage Human sacrifice, I went over that in my reply. It wasn't prophetic of a human sacrifice to come. Commented Aug 13, 2021 at 18:05
  • @MorrisBuel "All the prophets prophesied only of the days of the Messiah." [Babylonian Talmud, Sanhedrin 99a] The rabbinic tradition on Akeda (the binding of Isaac) interpret as pointing to the Messiah too. I will reply you tomorrow for further debate. The pre-Christian Jewish interpretation are crucial in studying the Bible. They are the key to understand the NT.
    – Michael16
    Commented Aug 13, 2021 at 18:12
  • @Michael16 Are you referring to Hiyya bar Abba says Rabbi Yohanan says all the prophets prophesied only about the messianic era, but with regard to the World-to-Come, "No eye has seen it, Gd, aside from you, Who will do for those who await him." ??? Why did you end the quote mid sentence? This is clearly only talking about messianic prophecies and them not being about the afterlife, but rather the age of the messiah. It is a massive stretch to then go on to say that every single prophecy is about the messiah. Commented Dec 15, 2022 at 20:13
  • No it is not a stretch. It means every word or jot is about the Messiah alone. Whole scripture. He is the center or foundation of the word of God.
    – Michael16
    Commented Dec 16, 2022 at 4:24
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Luke 24:46 connection with the OT
OT Reference concerning the third day Leviticus 23:11,15, Exodus 12:1-1, Numbers 28, 29,

Introduction:

The central theme and message of the New Testament is undoubtedly the story of the resurrected Jesus Christ. All four gospels end with it. The book of Acts also revolves around the preaching and declaring of this very message and all the doctrine presented in Paul’s epistles and other epistles holds on its truth. Romans 1:4. The hope of all the New Testament believers is the coming of the resurrected Christ. Acts 1:9-11, I Thessalonians 4:13-18, 1 Corinthians 15:4-58, Titus 2:13. The Bible does not only declare that Jesus rose from the grave. IT strongly asserted that Jesus rose from the grave on the third day. Paul made it clear that the Gospel is about the death burial and resurrection of Jesus Christ on the third day according to the scriptures. 1Corinthians 15:3-4. The third-day resurrection was mentioned by the Lord Jesus, as a sign in John 2:19 as he was challenged by his hearers to prove His claims, and 13 times as a prophetic declaration in his private conversation with His disciples (I intentionally excluded Matthew 12:40 because I personally believed that it is not in line with this third-day slogan). It is worth noting here that He made this declaration and introduced this new truth – that he will suffer and rise from the dead on the third day when His disciples were already convinced that he is the Messiah. Matthew 16: 21, Mark 8:32, Luke 9:21. One other observation we may point out is that this third-day language seems to be absent in John’s Gospel except in John 2:19. One of these utterances by Jesus Christ with this “third-day” language is the focus of our case study today. It is found in Luke 24:46:

And said unto them, Thus it is written, and thus it behooved Christ to suffer, and to rise from the dead the third day:

This He uttered on the same day He was resurrected from the dead as He explained from the Scriptures to the two disciples on their way to Emmaus that the Christ will suffer and rise from the dead on the third day.

Paying close attention to the wording of the passage shows that Jesus Christ was making a connection between His third-day resurrection to the OT writings. The passage reads, “thus it is written... and to rise from the dead the third day.” This is the first time this third-day resurrection was connected to the OT, the second is in 1 Corinthians 15:3-4, which solidifies that this is true. (Two Witness). The OT presented clearly that Jesus will suffer, die, and be raised from the dead. Psalms 22, Isaiah 53, and Psalms 16:10 are some of the examples of this prophecy. But looking thoroughly throughout the Old Testament, we will learn that there is no direct Old Testament passage that prophesies or mentions that the Messiah will rise from the dead or from the grave on the third day. So, where and how can we find the OT reference that pertains to Jesus' resurrection on the third day as He stated in Luke 24:46?

In this presentation, I will offer two possible ways we can make a connection between Luke 24:46 and the OT writings.

  1. By looking at how OT used this Adverbial phrase the third day and how these verses can be related to Jesus' resurrection.

The adverbial phrase the third day was mentioned 36 times in the OT. In all these 36 verses, the closest verse with which we can make a connection to the third-day resurrection language is found in Hosea 6:2 which is also the last verse in the OT. This is the prophecy proclaimed by the prophet Hosea to backslide Israel and Judah. The promise of the restoration or resurrection will come on the third day if they will repent. This is somewhat of an obscure verse and can only be a good reference if we combine all the OT verses that mention the third day. Looking at these 36 verses, there is a recurring idea and motif that this third-day language is presenting in OT and that is “the shortness of time”. In a very short time, Jesus rose from the grave as he promised according to the scripture.

But more interestingly, there is seemingly a progressive truth that is being built in this third-day phrase in the Bible in connection to God’s divine plan of salvation. which culminates in Jesus Christ's resurrection. In the New Testament, this adverbial phrase the third day was mentioned 16 times. In fourteen out of the 16 verses, we will find out that it always qualifies the verb “raise” or “rise” and is always in relation to Jesus’ resurrection. Looking to all these 56 verses we will see this progressive truth. Matthew 16:21, 17:23, 20:19, 27:64; Mark 9:31,10:34, Luke 9:22, 13:32, 18:33, 24:7, 24:21, 24:46, Acts 10:40, 1 Corinthians 15:4

These are the following: a. It implies shortness of time, a period of short time, Genesis 1:13, Esther 4:16, John 2:19 b. It implies the bringing forth of life and fruitfulness Genesis 1:13, 1 Kings 3:18 c. It implies judgment Genesis 34:25, Genesis 40:20 d. It implies confirmation of promise. Exodus 19:11,15-16, 1 Samuel 20:5-12: 1 King 12:12; 2 Kings 20:5-8 e. It implies hope and deliverance Genesis 42:18; Numbers 19:12-19, Esther 5:1 f. It implies completion Ezra 6:15, g. It implies a new beginning, John 2:1, and all the references about the resurrection of Jesus Christ on the third day. h. It implies Good news. 2 Samuel 1:2; Hosea 6:2

Uniting these 52 verses, 36 from the OT and 16 from NT passages we can arrive at a fuller meaning of Jesus' resurrection on the third according to scriptures or as it is written.

The resurrection on the third day of our Lord Jesus implies, in the shortness of time Christ brought life, fruitfulness, hope, deliverance, and judgment to those who rejected him and will reject him, confirmed the promise, completed his redemptive work, and offered good news to all.

  1. Another way that I found as a possible OT allusion to the resurrection of Jesus on the third day in the OT is the Feast of the Passover or the Unleavened Bread and the Feast of the First Fruits.

The death burial and resurrection of Jesus Christ are clearly associated and are in line with the date and timing of the Feast of the Passover or Feast of the Unleavened Bread and the Feast of First Fruits. Paul used the Passover lamb as a typology of Jesus as our Passover lamb. In the New Testament, there are 4 passages that allude that Jesus was the First Fruit which was foreshadowed by the first fruits that were offered during the Feast of the First Fruits.

1 Corinthians 15:20 KJV

But now is Christ risen from the dead, and become the first fruits of them that slept.

Acts 26:23 KJV

That Christ should suffer, and that he should be the first that should rise from the dead, and should shew light unto the people, and to the Gentiles.

Colossians 1:18 KJV

And he is the head of the body, the church: who is the beginning, the firstborn from the dead; that in all things he might have the preeminence.

Revelation 1:5 KJV

And from Jesus Christ, who is the faithful witness, and the first begotten of the dead, and the prince of the kings of the earth. Unto him that loved us, and washed us from our sins in his own blood,

All these 4 verses echoed the Feast of the First Fruits and the First Fruit offering and were intentionally or unintentionally connected by the writer to the resurrection from the dead or from the grave of Jesus Christ. Because of these obvious connections and how the resurrection of Jesus Christ on the third day happened exactly on the day of the First Fruits, it is of great importance that we account for the dating of these events properly. We need to answer and account properly the date of the Feast of the First Fruit. I personally believe that the proper interpretation of these events is the link that connects with the third-day resurrection language we read Luke 24:46 as was mentioned by Jesus.

The passage to be studied: Leviticus 23:4-11 and Exodus 12:15-16;

The Problem Text verse 11,

First, looking at Leviticus 23:4-11

The date or even the time of the killing of the Passover lamb as well as the date and the beginning of the Feast of Unleavened Bread was clearly stated in the Scriptures. Exodus 12:6, Leviticus 23:5-8. As for the killing of the Passover lamb, it must be killed on the even or 3 PM of the 14th day of the month of Nisan Exodus 12:6. The Feast of Unleavened Bread actually begins on the last meal of the 14th Day or the evening of the 15th day of the same month Leviticus 23:6-7. The unclear date is the Feast of the First Fruits. The only hint that was given is found in Leviticus 23:11, in the phrase “tomorrow after the sabbath...”

Two interpretation

For millennia, this statement “tomorrow after the sabbath”, found in these passages, has become a subject of great debate dating from before Christ leading up to our time. This problematic passage has been interpreted differently by the two religious parties in Jesus’ time – the Pharisees and the Sadducees. The Pharisees interpret the sabbath mentioned in Leviticus 23:11, tomorrow after the sabbath as the first day of the Unleavened Bread which is the 15th of Nisan.

Because the 15th day is a Holy Convocation no servile work will be done. Maybe it is because the convocation day was also considered a sabbath in Leviticus 23:23-44. Comparing the 15th as a holy convocation to the other feast days that were referred to as Holy convocations where no servile work should be done as Sabbath aside from regular Sabbath, one can conclude that the phrase found in Leviticus 23:11 was referring to the 15th or the first day of the unleavened bread.

The dating will be as follows:

  • The 14th is the day where they are commanded to kill the Passover Lamb at even (3 pm)
  • The 15th is the beginning of the Feast of Unleavened Bread
  • The 16th is the Feast of the First Fruits

With this line of interpretation, the feast of the first fruits will always be on the 16th but can fall on any day of the week.

Looking at this line of interpretation we can simply say that the feast of the first fruits as being the third day is closely related to the third-day resurrection mentioned by The Lord Jesus Christ in Luke 24:46

Let us also consider the other side of the interpretation of this problematic text. The Sadducees interpret this very differently. They interpret this tomorrow after the Sabbath as the regular sabbath. This means that the feast of the first fruits could fall on a different date as the years go by, but will always fall on the first day of the week or Sunday.

The dating will be as follows:

  • 14th is the day they are commanded to kill the Passover Lamb at even (3 pm)
  • 15th is the beginning of the feast of Unleavened Bread After the regular Sabbath is The First Fruit. It always falls on the first day of the week or Sunday

Which one is right?

The big question is which interpretation leads to the proper accounting of the third day? These two cannot be both right. Only one will hold water on properly accounting for the third-day connection to the OT if we compare the day Jesus was Crucified and rose again as narrated in the Gospels. Here we will encounter another problem if we compare the synoptic Gospel accounts Matthew 26:17, Mark 14:12, and Luke 22:7, to John 13:1, John 18:28, and 19:14 of the passion week, which we don’t have time to discuss.

A scenario where this can both fall on the same dating

These two differing interpretations can only be accidentally or providently correct if one will hold on to the narration found in the Gospel of John and have a valid biblical and historical explanation of why the Synoptic Gospel accounts these days differently.

Timing of Jesus' Death Burial and resurrection according to John’s narration

  • The 14th of Nisan-Passover was killed- Jesus' crucifixion. (6th day- Friday)
  • 15th of Nisan-Feast of Unleavened Bread- Jesus being buried from the dead (Sabbath day, Saturday)
  • 16th of Nisan-Feast of the First Fruits- Jesus, early in the morning rose from the grave. (First day of the week, Sunday)
    But it will have a different effect if one follows the Synoptic narration of the passion week.

Different Effects with Synoptic Narration

This dating will be different if we follow the narration of the Synoptic and somewhat go against the interpretation of the Pharisees and the translation of the Septuagint.)

The timing of Jesus' Death Burial and resurrection according to the Synoptic narration will be as follows:

  • 14th of Nisan-Passover was killed- Jesus ate the Passover with the disciples. (Thursday)
  • 15th of Nisan-Feast of Unleavened Bread-Jesus was Crucified (6th day, Friday)
  • 16th of Nisan-Jesus was buried and on the grave. (Sabbath day)
  • 17th of Nisan-Feast of the First Fruits-Jesus, early in the morning rose from the grave. (First day of the week, Sunday)

Links that solved and connect these two events with Luke 24:46

  1. All the New Testament references that connect the resurrection of Jesus Christ to the feast of the first fruits paint the picture of resurrection from the grave.

1 Corinthians 15:20 KJVS

But now is Christ risen from the dead, and become the first fruits of them that slept.

Acts 26:23 KJVS

That Christ should suffer, and that he should be the first that should rise from the dead, and should shew light unto the people, and to the Gentiles.

Colossians 1:18 KJVS

And he is the head of the body, the church: who is the beginning, the firstborn from the dead; that in all things he might have the preeminence.

Revelation 1:5 KJVS

And from Jesus Christ, who is the faithful witness, and the first begotten of the dead, and the prince of the kings of the earth. Unto him that loved us, and washed us from our sins in his own blood,

  1. All the post-resurrection declaration of Jesus' resurrection has an image of resurrection from the grave. Matthew 28:6-7, Mark 16:6, Luke 24:5-7, John 21:14, Acts 10:40
  2. Looking closely at the four Gospel narrations, Jesus' burial started around 6 PM and finished around 3 AM after the crucifixion.

Accounting this third-day resurrection will give us this scenario from

  • 14th of Nisan-Passover was killed- Jesus was crucified. (Thursday)
  • 15th of Nisan-Feast of Unleavened Bread- he was buried around 6 PM – 3 AM (6th day, Friday) First day
  • 16th of Nisan-Jesus was on the grave. (Sabbath day) Second day
  • 17th of Nisan-Feast of the First Fruits- Jesus, early in the morning rose from the grave. (First day of the week, Sunday) Third day Comparing this to the feast of Unleavened bread the day to the Feast of the First Fruits as explained in Exodus 12:15-16. Will give us the third-day link.

15 Seven days shall ye eat unleavened bread; even the first day ye shall put away leaven out of your houses: for whosoever eateth leavened bread from the first day until the seventh day, that soul shall be cut off from Israel. 16 And in the first day there shall be a holy convocation, and in the seventh day there shall be a holy convocation to you; no manner of work shall be done in them, save that which every man must eat, that only may be done of you.

  • First day of Unleavened bread: 15th of Nisan, Jesus was Buried (Friday)
  • Second day of Unleavened Bread: 16th of Nisan, Jesus was in the Grave (Saturday)
  • Third day of Unleavened bread: 17th of Nisan, (the feast of the first fruits) Jesus rose from the grave.

The first Passover lamb was sacrificed on the 14th of Nisan on the 5th day of the week, Thursday, The Feast of the Unleavened bread falls on the 6th day of the week 15th of Nisan, Friday, the sabbath day (the second day of the feast of the unleavened Bread) 16th of Nisan, Feast of the First Fruits falls on the Third day of Unleavened bread, first day of the week, Sunday 17th of Nisan, when it was first instituted. The Death, Burial, and resurrection of Jesus Christ providentially fall on the same days of the week.

Conclusions
It is a big possibility that the OT passage Jesus and Paul that pertains to the third-day resurrection has something to do with the feast of the Unleavened Bread up to the feast of the first fruits in which through divine providential act happened on the exact day Jesus was buried and rose again.

I personally believe that the right interpretation of Leviticus 23:11 “ tomorrow after the sabbath” which links Luke 24:46 to the OT writings referring to the regular sabbath for the following reasons:

  1. The law of first mention. Leviticus 23:3 refers to the regular sabbath, why interpret vs 11 as an irregular sabbath when this irregular sabbath was first mentioned in verses 24-44

  2. The context itself. Leviticus 23:16 refers to the seven regular sabbaths so it follows that vs 11 is a regular sabbath. (Pentecost always falls on Sunday, the first day of the week)

  3. The words of Jesus Christ in Luke 24:46 and Paul in 1 Corinthians 15:4 Jesus is the Passover lamb, The Unleavened Bread, and the first fruits that foreshadow these events.

  4. The New Testament teaching pictures in mind the resurrection from the grave on the third day, Matthew 28:6-7, Mark 16:6, Luke 24:5-7, John 21:14, Acts 10:40 (1 Corinthians 15:20 "But now is Christ risen from the dead, and become the first fruits of them that slept."; Acts 26:23 "That Christ should suffer, and that he should be the first that should rise from the dead, and should shew light unto the people, and to the Gentiles."; Colossians 1:18 "And he is the head of the body, the church: who is the beginning, the firstborn from the dead; that in all things he might have the preeminence."; Revelation 1:5 KJVS "And from Jesus Christ, who is the faithful witness, and the first begotten of the dead, and the prince of the kings of the earth. Unto him that loved us, and washed us from our sins in his own blood.") and a closer inspection of the passages narrated in the Gospel suggests that the possible time of Jesus' burial begins somewhere from 6 PM which is considered as a new day in Jewish accounting of day.

  5. The timing of Jesus' burial, his own prophecy and statement that He will rise on the third day, and other verses in the New Testament will help us connect Luke 24:46 to these OT Feast mentioned in Exodus 12, Leviticus 23:4-16

  6. The timing of Jesus' Death as Narrated in the Four Gospels is in line with Leviticus 23:11-15, Exodus 12:18-19 Timing 14th of Nisan Fifth day of the week (Thursday) -Jesus was Crucified and gave up the ghost at even, around 3 PM (First day of Unleavened Bread) 15th of Nisan sixth day of the week (Friday) Jesus was buried at even around 6PM (Second day of Unleavened Bread) 16th of Nisan, Sabbath day, Jesus was in the grave. (Third day of Unleavened Bread) 17th of Nisan, first day of the week, the feast of the first fruit, very early in the morning (still at night time) Jesus rose from the grave.

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    – agarza
    Commented Mar 21 at 3:39
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The truth is there is no scripture that says Messiah will suffer for sin, die and three days later be raised. The NT authors do this frequently and the goal is replacement theology. That Jesus Christ replaces the prophesies toward and about Israel.

Moreover, brethren, I declare unto you the gospel which I preached unto you, which also ye have received, and wherein ye stand; By which also ye are saved, if ye keep in memory what I preached unto you, unless ye have believed in vain. For I delivered unto you first of all that which I also received, how that Christ died for our sins according to the scriptures; And that he was buried, and that he rose again the third day according to the scriptures: {1Co 15:1-4 KJV}

There are NO scriptures (writings) in Tanakh that say this or what the Jesus of Luke is saying.

I want to address some of the other answers that come from Christian presuppositions.

Isaac's sacrifice for example is a type of the father sacrificing his 'only' son. (Which apparently also transpired over 3 days - Abraham receiving his son 'back from the dead' Genesis 22:4)

The purpose of this act wasn't to provide a shadow of what YHWH would do to his own son. He provided the sacrifice then and there, a Ram. The purpose was to destroy the god of Ur (a Ram) and abolish the idea that YHWH needed human sacrifice. You see these nations all sacrificed their first born to various gods - Rams, Sheeps, Goats, Cows, etc. We see the same thing during the passover - and this is also why it's offensive to call the Messiah the "lamb of God". The lamb was destroyed because it represented pagan gods of Egypt.

They were killing the Egyptian gods, putting it's blood all over their door frame, and then eating the Egyptian God. By doing this, Father YHWH promised to protect them from the angel of death. YHWH wasn't setting in place some shadow of a human / God or son of God to become a "lamb" to be offered on passover on a Roman cross.

This is not possible, if you believe he was "sinless" this very act would make him a transgressor of the "law" or Torah.

Thou shalt not do so unto the LORD thy God: for every abomination to the LORD, which he hateth, have they done unto their gods; for even their sons and their daughters they have burnt in the fire to their gods. {Deu 12:31 KJV}

What happens to the Passover offering? It is burnt, consumed in the fire and offered to YHWH. He tells us do not offer to the gods of the nations (rams, goats, etc) your SONS and DAUGHTERS.

How then can we believe YHWH offered his own son as a burnt offering as a lamb of God?

It is offensive to YHWH.

Hosea targeted Israel for this prophecy but it was a double prophecy fulfilled in Christ finally.

I don't blame the person who wrote this - this is how the NT teaches people to read the Tanakh. That Messiah replaces the promises and scripture to Israel. It's why they read Messiah into Isaiah 53 as well, a scripture thoroughly about Israel in the context.

Hosea's writings are about Israel. Not the Messiah.

Here is why people do that, from the first book of the NT.

And was there until the death of Herod: that it might be fulfilled which was spoken of the Lord by the prophet, saying, Out of Egypt have I called my son. {Mat 2:15 KJV}

The author of Matthew claims the events he's recording were prophesied by the "prophet" (Which is Hosea) that the Messiah will be called out of Egypt. PLEASE when you see the NT reference the writings of the Tanakh (OT) compare them side by side.

When Israel [was] a child, then I loved him, and called my son out of Egypt. {Hos 11:1 KJV}

This isn't even prophetic, it is about Israel HIS CHILD. About how YHWH called Israel out of Egypt when he was but a child. Read the context of Hosea 11. There is no way to justify the replacement theology of the NT Matthew when you do.

And thou shalt say unto Pharaoh, Thus saith the LORD, Israel [is] my son, [even] my firstborn: {Exo 4:22 KJV}

When you see these side by side, I pray you see the replacement theology the NT writers were trying to implant in people's minds.

Blessings

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    Didn't the Jewish sages interpreted all those Messianic passages as Messianic? biblestudying.net/rabbinic5.html
    – Michael16
    Commented Aug 13, 2021 at 17:11
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    Hosea 11 is not Messianic. and the Talmud is NOT inspired by YHWH Commented Aug 13, 2021 at 17:53
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There is nothing in the OT to imply that Jesus was going to die and be raised / resurrected – whether 3 days/nights or die for our sins.

This question asks to cover a number of issues and it would be too long to cover in 1 answer. Therefore, I refer you to 4 link Answers –

  1. OT evidence was Jesus crucified and resurrected Or saved - https://hermeneutics.stackexchange.com/a/62632/33268
  2. did Jesus die for our sins - https://hermeneutics.stackexchange.com/a/75324/33268
  3. inherit sin based on Romans 5:12? https://hermeneutics.stackexchange.com/a/62982/33268
  4. sign of Jonah - https://hermeneutics.stackexchange.com/a/79588/33268.

The below is a summary.

Died and Resurrected

To the contrary the OT says that Jesus will be heard and saved – in particular Psalms.

Psalm 20:6 6Now I know that the LORD saves His anointed; He answers him from His holy heaven with the saving power of His right hand.

Psalms 34:20 & 22 - 20He protects all his bones; not one of them will be broken (to say the soldiers were very carful and precious when nailing Jesus is wishful thinking)

PSALM 91:10-16 no harm will overtake you, no disaster will come near your tent.11 For he will command his angels concerning you to guard you in all your ways; 12 they will lift you up in their hands, so that you will not strike your foot against a stone. 13 You will tread on the lion and the cobra; you will trample the great lion and the serpent. 14 “Because he loves me,” says the LORD, “I will rescue him; I will protect him, for he acknowledges my name. 15 He will call on me, and I will answer him; I will be with him in trouble, I will deliver him and honor him. 16 With long life I will satisfy him and show him My salvation.”

John 11:41-42 - 41) Then they took away the stone from the place where the dead man was lying. And Jesus lifted up His eyes and said, “Father, I thank You that You have heard Me. 42) And I know that You always hear Me, but because of the people who are standing by I said this, that they may believe that You sent Me.”

Luke 24:39 - "Behold my hands and my feet, that it is I myself: handle me, and see; for a spirit hath not flesh and bones, as ye see me have".

Apocalypse of Peter

confirms that - The Savior said to me, "He whom you saw on the tree, glad and laughing, this is the living Jesus. But this one into whose hands and feet they drive the nails is his fleshly part, which is the substitute being put to shame, the one who came into being in his likeness. But look at him and me." But I, when I had looked, said "Lord, no one is looking at you. Let us flee this place."

Peter implies Jesus was not on the pole / cross – if Jesus died on the poll he would be considered a false prophet Deut 21:22-23.

(Jesus was heard, saved, not a spirit, held, ate so on – Peter is very clear)
For more – if Jesus was forsaken – see link 1

Died for our sins

Matthew 9:13 - 13 But go and learn what this means: I desire mercy, not sacrifice For I have not come to call the righteous, but sinners.”

Hosea 6:6 - 6 For I desire mercy, not sacrifice,

Psalm 40:6 - 6 Sacrifice and offering you did not desire but my ears you have opened burnt offerings and sin offerings you did not require.

Deuteronomy 12:31 - 31 You must not worship the LORD your God in their way, because in worshiping their gods, they do all kinds of detestable things the LORD hates. They even burn their sons and daughters in the fire as sacrifices to their gods.

Deuteronomy 18:10 - 10 Let no one be found among you who sacrifices their son or daughter in the fire, who practices divination or sorcery, interprets omens, engages in witchcraft,

Matt. 5:17-20 - 17 “Do not think that I have come to abolish the Law or the Prophets; I have not come to abolish them but to fulfil them. …….

***(it would go against the OT if God sacrificed Jesus – regardless if he is Prophet / son of God / God himself)

For more – if Jesus the sacrificial lamb / inherit sin - see link 2 & 3

Jonah

Matt 12:40 – mentions as like Jonah & 3 days & 3 nights.

Yet Matt 16 & Mark 8

Matthew 16:4 4 A wicked and adulterous generation looks for a sign, but none will be given it except the sign of Jonah.” Jesus then left them and went away.

Mark 8:12 And he sighed deeply in his spirit and said, “Why does this generation seek a sign? Truly, I say to you, no sign will be given to this generation.”

Psalms 18: 5The cords of Sheol entangled me; the snares of death confronted me. 6 In my distress I called upon the LORD; I cried to my God for help. From His temple He heard my voice, and my cry for His help reached His ears.…

Jonah 2

2 1 From inside the fish Jonah prayed to the LORD his God deep in the realm of the dead I called for help, and you listened to my cry.

7 “When my life was ebbing away,

Ecclesiastes 9:5-6 5 For the living know that they will die, but the dead know nothing, and they have no more reward, for the memory of them is forgotten. 6 Their love and their hate and their envy have already perished, and forever they have no more share in all that is done under the sun.

(Clearly, Jonah did not die - dead cannot pray or call for help, ebbing dying – not dead, another evidence that Jesus did not die)

'heart of the earth' (tomb is not earth or being buried) & 3 days & 3 nights another issue - hotly debated or an attempt to make it fit.

For more see: link 4 – Jonah

Conclusion

No evidence that Jesus died or was resurrected, regardless 3 days or not. Jonah was alive and has always been understood that way, albeit now some say he was also resurrected – again a manipulation to fit the post Jesus story line of Paul and others well after Jesus.

For interest: who wrote Matthew gospel - https://hermeneutics.stackexchange.com/a/73492/33268

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