There is nothing in the OT to imply that Jesus was going to die and be raised / resurrected – whether 3 days/nights or die for our sins.
This question asks to cover a number of issues and it would be too long to cover in 1 answer. Therefore, I refer you to 4 link Answers –
- OT evidence was Jesus crucified and resurrected Or saved - https://hermeneutics.stackexchange.com/a/62632/33268
- did Jesus die for our sins - https://hermeneutics.stackexchange.com/a/75324/33268
- inherit sin based on Romans 5:12? https://hermeneutics.stackexchange.com/a/62982/33268
- sign of Jonah - https://hermeneutics.stackexchange.com/a/79588/33268.
The below is a summary.
Died and Resurrected
To the contrary the OT says that Jesus will be heard and saved – in particular Psalms.
Psalm 20:6 6Now I know that the LORD saves His anointed; He answers him from His holy heaven with the saving power of His right hand.
Psalms 34:20 & 22 - 20He protects all his bones; not one of them will be broken (to say the soldiers were very carful and precious when nailing Jesus is wishful thinking)
PSALM 91:10-16 no harm will overtake you, no disaster will come near your tent.11 For he will command his angels concerning you to guard you in all your ways; 12 they will lift you up in their hands, so that you will not strike your foot against a stone. 13 You will tread on the lion and the cobra; you will trample the great lion and the serpent. 14 “Because he loves me,” says the LORD, “I will rescue him; I will protect him, for he acknowledges my name. 15 He will call on me, and I will answer him; I will be with him in trouble, I will deliver him and honor him. 16 With long life I will satisfy him and show him My salvation.”
John 11:41-42 - 41) Then they took away the stone from the place where the dead man was lying. And Jesus lifted up His eyes and said, “Father, I thank You that You have heard Me. 42) And I know that You always hear Me, but because of the people who are standing by I said this, that they may believe that You sent Me.”
Luke 24:39 - "Behold my hands and my feet, that it is I myself: handle me, and see; for a spirit hath not flesh and bones, as ye see me have".
Apocalypse of Peter
confirms that - The Savior said to me, "He whom you saw on the tree, glad and laughing, this is the living Jesus. But this one into whose hands and feet they drive the nails is his fleshly part, which is the substitute being put to shame, the one who came into being in his likeness. But look at him and me."
But I, when I had looked, said "Lord, no one is looking at you. Let us flee this place."
Peter implies Jesus was not on the pole / cross – if Jesus died on the poll he would be considered a false prophet Deut 21:22-23.
(Jesus was heard, saved, not a spirit, held, ate so on – Peter is very clear)
For more – if Jesus was forsaken – see link 1
Died for our sins
Matthew 9:13 - 13 But go and learn what this means: I desire mercy, not sacrifice For I have not come to call the righteous, but sinners.”
Hosea 6:6 - 6 For I desire mercy, not sacrifice,
Psalm 40:6 - 6 Sacrifice and offering you did not desire
but my ears you have opened
burnt offerings and sin offerings you did not require.
Deuteronomy 12:31 - 31 You must not worship the LORD your God in their way, because in worshiping their gods, they do all kinds of detestable things the LORD hates. They even burn their sons and daughters in the fire as sacrifices to their gods.
Deuteronomy 18:10 - 10 Let no one be found among you who sacrifices their son or daughter in the fire, who practices divination or sorcery, interprets omens, engages in witchcraft,
Matt. 5:17-20 - 17 “Do not think that I have come to abolish the Law or the Prophets; I have not come to abolish them but to fulfil them. …….
***(it would go against the OT if God sacrificed Jesus – regardless if he is Prophet / son of God / God himself)
For more – if Jesus the sacrificial lamb / inherit sin - see link 2 & 3
Matt 12:40 – mentions as like Jonah & 3 days & 3 nights.
Yet Matt 16 & Mark 8
Matthew 16:4 4 A wicked and adulterous generation looks for a sign, but none will be given it except the sign of Jonah.” Jesus then left them and went away.
Mark 8:12 And he sighed deeply in his spirit and said, “Why does this generation seek a sign? Truly, I say to you, no sign will be given to this generation.”
Psalms 18: 5The cords of Sheol entangled me; the snares of death confronted me. 6 In my distress I called upon the LORD; I cried to my God for help. From His temple He heard my voice, and my cry for His help reached His ears.…
2 1 From inside the fish Jonah prayed to the LORD his God
deep in the realm of the dead I called for help,
and you listened to my cry.
7 “When my life was ebbing away,
Ecclesiastes 9:5-6 5 For the living know that they will die, but the dead know nothing, and they have no more reward, for the memory of them is forgotten. 6 Their love and their hate and their envy have already perished, and forever they have no more share in all that is done under the sun.
(Clearly, Jonah did not die - dead cannot pray or call for help, ebbing dying – not dead, another evidence that Jesus did not die)
'heart of the earth' (tomb is not earth or being buried) & 3 days & 3 nights another issue - hotly debated or an attempt to make it fit.
For more see: link 4 – Jonah
No evidence that Jesus died or was resurrected, regardless 3 days or not. Jonah was alive and has always been understood that way, albeit now some say he was also resurrected – again a manipulation to fit the post Jesus story line of Paul and others well after Jesus.
For interest: who wrote Matthew gospel - https://hermeneutics.stackexchange.com/a/73492/33268