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Leviticus 18:7 NASB

7 You shall not uncover the nakedness of your father, that is, the nakedness of your mother. She is your mother; you are not to uncover her nakedness.

Leviticus 18:8 NASB

8 You shall not uncover the nakedness of your father’s wife; it is your father’s nakedness.

In the above texts the author first uses the term your mother and the following text he switches to fathers wife

Is there some subtle differences in the above terms?

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I think this is less complicated than it appears.

Lev 18:7 says - You must not expose the nakedness of your father by having sexual relations with your mother. She is your mother; you must not have sexual relations with her.

This text is straight forward. The nakedness of the your father is your mother. However, v8 allows for the possibility that the mother has died and the father now has a new wife; so to close that "loophole", V8 is included:

You must not have sexual relations with your father’s wife; it would dishonor your father.

This covers all possibilities because your father's wife may not be your mother. There was an actual instance of this in the case of Reuben and one of Jacob's wives, Bilhah - see Gen 35:22 & 49:4. Bilhah was not Reuben's mother; Reuben's mother was Leah.

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