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According to the following passage

“And David took more concubines and wives from Jerusalem, after he came from Hebron, and more sons and daughters were born to David. And these are the names of those who were born to him in Jerusalem: Shammua, Shobab, Nathan, Solomon,” ‭‭2 Samuel‬ ‭5:13-14‬

David had a son named Nathan

According to Luke’s account of Mary’s lineage - through which Jesus was to be born - it goes back to David but not through Solomon

“the son of Melea, the son of Menna, the son of Mattatha, the son of Nathan, the son of David, the son of Jesse, the son of Obed, the son of Boaz, the son of Sala, the son of Nahshon,” ‭‭Luke‬ ‭3:31-32‬

How does that play into the different promises made to David?

“then I will establish your royal throne over Israel forever, as I promised David your father, saying, ‘You shall not lack a man on the throne of Israel.’” ‭‭1 Kings‬ ‭9:5‬

Would this mean the promise was for David guaranteed and any of his descendants but not also true for Solomon?

And does it fulfill the prophetic awaited prophecy of the Messiah being from the Davidic lineage even if He was not from the line of Solomon and therefore all previous kings?

“There shall come forth a shoot from the stump of Jesse, and a branch from his roots shall bear fruit.” ‭‭Isaiah‬ ‭11:1‬

And more explicitly

“For to us a child is born, to us a son is given; and the government shall be upon his shoulder, and his name shall be called Wonderful Counselor, Mighty God, Everlasting Father, Prince of Peace. Of the increase of his government and of peace there will be no end, on the throne of David and over his kingdom, to establish it and to uphold it with justice and with righteousness from this time forth and forevermore. The zeal of the Lord of hosts will do this.” ‭‭Isaiah‬ ‭9:6-7

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Luke's listing serves two purposes. Jewish genealogical practice was to list a father/son relationship, enabling Jesus's generations to be traced all the way back to Adam through Eve and Mary. Therefore, Luke documents that He is BOTH the "Son of man", and the highly esteemed "seed of the woman". Matthew's (partial) listing pertains to Jesus being the promised "seed of David" King of kings ONLY through Judah--not Benjamin--bypassing Jeconiah, as @WalterSmetana stated above. Neither have anything to do with the Levitical priesthood. Christ is NOT of Benjamin--King Saul was of Benjamin.

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I think you have answered your own questions.

Matthew vs Luke Genealogy

Clearly, Matthew traces Jesus' royal lineage through those entitled to sit on the throne of David. By contrast, Luke traces, not the royal lineage but a second, equally valid lineage that still ends up with David.

Now, some have suggested, (without much evidence) that Luke actually uses the Jesus' human lineage traced, as far as possible via a more priestly line. Certainly many of the names in Luke are more Levitical, but this cannot be confirmed. However, IF this is true, then it would confirm that Jesus is both King and Priest (humanly speaking) as per Melchizedek (Heb 7:1, 4).

In any case, it was a valid line by which to trace Jesus' ancestry to another son of David and strengthens Jesus' (human) linkage to David.

Royal Inheritance of David

The Davidic or Royal Covenant which God made with David (2 Sam 7, 23:5, 1 Kings 6:11, 12, 8:25, 1 Chron 17:11-14, 2 Chron 6:14-16, 7:17, 18, 13:5, Ps 132:11, 12, Eze 37:15-28) about the absolute permanence of the dynasty of David (2 Sam 23:5, 1 Kings 9:5, 2 Chron 13:5, Eze 37:25, 26) can be understood in one of two ways:

  1. The prophecies failed due to Judah's unfaithfulness and the royal line was terminated with the captivity. (It cannot be denied that this was at least partly true.)
  2. The Prophecies about the permanence of David's royal line were actually fulfilled in the Messiah as hinted at in Isa 9:6, but made fully explicit in the NT.

Jesus is the promised King of the new Christian Community, ie, the Kingdom of Heaven, or, Kingdom of God, Luke 1:33, John 1:49, Acts 13:23, Rev 11:15. Compare Jer 33:14-17, Eze 37:22. Thus, Jesus inherits the Davidic Royal Covenant. He is also the “Son of David” (Matt 1:1-16) and “Son of God” as predicted in the Davidic Covenant (2 Sam 7); and His kingdom will never be defeated and is eternal, Luke 1:33, Heb 1:8, Rev 11:15, compare Ps 61:7, Isa 9:7, Psa 146:10.

Further, Jesus is now seated on the eternal throne in heaven, at the right hand of the Father, Mark 14:62, 16:19, Eph 1:20, Col 3:1, Heb 1;13, 10:12, 1 Peter 3:22, Rev 5:1, etc. This is confirmed by observing the actual settings of the original OT Davidic covenant - the earthly king was to recognize that the real king of Israel was God. 1 Sam 8:7, 8, 24:6, 2 Sam 19:21, 1 Chron 28:5, 2 Chron 9:8, 13:8, Ps 5:2, 44:4. See also 1 Sam 12:14.

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