At Mark 13:19 we find a articular θεός. In the introduction to Mark we find the anarthrous first mention. There "Jesus Christ" is in apposition to "Son of God." So in Mark, God is the Father. The article at Mark 13:19 is a anaphoric to θεός at 1:1.
Without going into excruciating detail, a bit of logic can be applied
to every example of ο θεός in the NT.
If Wallace and Bishop Middleton are correct on the anaphoric article being inserted with a renewed mention of θεός, every instance of ο θεός is a reference to the God and Father of Jesus Christ.
This is because there is no uncontested example of two instances of θεός that follow upon each other being a reference to the Son, even by the reckoning of Trinitarian scholars. See list of Trinitarian Bibles below.
All of the texts where some Trinitarians say Jesus is the referent for ο θεός suffer from:
- Textual problems
- Questions on punctuation
- Ambiguity of the word "and"
- Ambiguous grammar
How do we recognize these?
Get a good library of Trinitarian English translations and compare them.
They cancel each other out. When there is a translation issue, all that are left is John 1:1 and 1:18.
It's really that simple. The emperor has no clothes.
- Your throne is like God's throne (NEB)
- God has enthroned you for all eternity (REB)
- Your throne,God, is for ever and ever (New Jerusalem Bible)
- or God is your throne" (NRSV footnote)
- Thy throne is the throne of God (ASV footnote)
BDAG θεός 2.
In Ro 9:5 the interpr. is complicated by demand of punctuation marks in printed texts. If a period is placed before ὁ ὢν κτλ., the doxology refers to God as defined in Israel (so EAbbot, JBL 1, 1881, 81-154; 3, 1883, 90-112; RLipsius; HHoltzmann, Ntl. Theol.2 II 1911, 99f; EGünther, StKr 73, 1900, 636-44; FBurkitt, JTS 5, 1904, 451-55; Jülicher; PFeine, Theol. d. NTs6 ’34, 176 et al.; RSV text; NRSV mg
"looking for the blessed hope and the appearing of the glory of [the great God and our Savior (footnote)], Christ Jesus, " (NASB, footnote)
"Looking for that blessed hope, and the glorious appearing of the great God and our Saviour Jesus Christ; " (KJV)
"of the great God and of our Savior Christ Jesus" (The Riverside New Testament, Boston and New York, 1934)
"of the great God and of our Savior Christ Jesus" (The New American bible, New York and London, 1970)
"of the great God and of Christ Jesus our Savior" (The New Testament in Modern English, by J.B. Phillips, New York, 1972)
"of the great God and our Saviour Jesus Christ" (ASV)
"Or our great God and our savior, Christ Jesus." (JB footnote)
"Or of the great God and our Savior." (RSV footnote)
"Or of the great God and our Savior" (NEB footnote)
2 Peter 1:1
Simon Peter, a servant and an apostle of Jesus Christ, to them that have obtained like precious faith with us through the righteousness of God and our Saviour Jesus Christ: (KJV)
Simon Peter, a servant and apostle of Jesus Christ, to them that have obtained a like precious faith with us in the righteousness of our God and the Saviour Jesus Christ: (ASV)
Simon Peter, a bondservant and Apostle of Jesus Christ: To those to whom there has been allotted the same precious faith as that which is ours through the righteousness of our God and of our Saviour Jesus Christ. (Weymouth)
But here [2Peter 1:1], as there [Titus 2:13], considerations interpose, which seem to remove the strict grammatical [one-person rendering] out of the range of probable meaning" (Henry Alford, The Greek New Testament, vol. 3, Galatians-Philemon, page 390)
In 2Peter 1:1 Savior Jesus Christ] may be taken by itself and separated from the preceding [the preceding in this case is the word God." (F. Blass and A. Debrunner, A Greek Grammar of the New Testament and Other Early Christian Literature, trans. R. W. Funk, page 145)