If the believer is not fleshly but spiritual he is to have the spirit according to Romans 8:9

Which spirit?

  • God’s (1)
  • Jesus’ (2)
  • Either one (1 or 2)
  • Both (1 + 2)
  • They are one and the same (1 = 2)

υμεις δε ουκ εστε εν σαρκι αλλ εν πνευματι ειπερ πνευμα θεου οικει εν υμιν ει δε τις πνευμα χριστου ουκ εχει ουτος ουκ εστιν αυτου

What does the grammar in the broader context of the chapter and epistle indicate?

2 Answers 2


The answer is: the Holy Spirit, the Spirit of Christ, and the Spirit of the Father, and these are all the one and the same spirit shared by the three persons of the Trinity.

Romans 8:9:

  • εἴπερ πνεῦμα θεοῦ οἰκεῖ ἐν ὑμῖν (“if indeed the Spirit of God dwells in you”)
  • εἰ δέ τις πνεῦμα Χριστοῦ οὐκ ἔχει (“but if someone does not have the Spirit of Christ”)

This is evidently the same spirit. If this Spirit dwells in them, then they (i.e., Christians) have that Spirit. First, that Spirit is described as “the Spirit of God,” then immediately after in the same verse, it is described as “the Spirit of Christ.”

Romans 8:10:

  • εἰ δὲ Χριστὸς ἐν ὑμῖν (“but if Christ [be] in you”)

Romans 8:9–10 in summary:

  • the Spirit of God dwells in [someone]
  • [someone] has the Spirit of Christ
  • Christ is in [someone]

In Romans 8:11, first the apostle states,

  • εἰ δὲ τὸ πνεῦμα τοῦ ἐγείραντος Ἰησοῦν ἐκ νεκρῶν οἰκεῖ ἐν ὑμῖν (“but if the Spirit of Him who raised Jesus from the dead dwells in you”)

Now, the participial phrase τοῦ ἐγείραντος Ἰησοῦν ἐκ νεκρῶν (“of Him who raised Jesus from the dead”) refers to the Father;1 therefore, “the Spirit of Him who raised Jesus from the dead” would be equivalent to saying “the Spirit of the Father.” (Elsewhere, the Spirit of the Father is equated to the Holy Spirit.2) Then, the apostle mentions “His Spirit that dwells in you.” Again, “His Spirit,” referring to the Father’s Spirit, is used elsewhere in reference to the Holy Spirit.3


        1 Rom. 6:4, 10:9
        2 Matt. 10:20 // Mark 13:11
        3 1 John 4:13 cf. 1 John 3:24

Romans 8:9–11 in summary:

  • the Spirit of God dwells in them
  • they have the Spirit of Christ
  • Christ is in them
  • the Spirit of [the Father] dwells in them


The Bible clearly indicates a distinction of persons: “Father, Son, and Holy Spirit.4


        4 Matt. 28:19; 2 Cor. 13:14

Christians have the Holy Spirit.5
Christians have the Spirit of the Son (Christ).6
Christians have the Spirit of the Father.7
Christians have the Son (Christ).8
Christians have the Father.9


        5 1 Cor. 6:19
        6 Rom. 8:9
        7 1 Cor. 7:40
        8 1 John 5:12; 2 John 1:9
        9 1 John 2:23; 2 John 1:9

The Holy Spirit dwells in Christians.10
The Spirit of the Son (Christ) dwells in Christians.11
The Spirit of the Father dwells in Christians.12
The Son (Christ) dwells in Christians.
The Father dwells in Christians.13


        10 Rom. 8:11; 2 Tim. 1:14
        11 Gal. 4:6 (dwelling implied)
        12 Rom. 8:9, 8:11
        13 1 John 3:24, 4:12, 4:13, 4:15, 4:16

The Holy Spirit is in Christians.14
The Spirit of the Son (Christ) is in Christians.
The Spirit of the Father is in Christians.15
The Son (Christ) is in Christians.16
The Father is in Christians.17


        14 John 14:17; 1 Cor. 6:19
        15 Matt. 10:20
        16 Rom. 8:10; 2 Cor. 13:5
        17 Eph. 4:6; 1 John 4:4

Augustine, “On the Trinity,”18

And it is proved by many other testimonies of the divine words, that the Spirit, who is properly called in the Trinity, the Holy Spirit, is the Father’s and the Son’s.

Et multis aliis divinorum eloquiorum testimoniis comprobatur Patris et Filii esse Spiritum, qui proprie dicitur in Trinitate Spiritus Sanctus.


        18 Augustine, Book XV, Ch. XXVI, p. 1092

Because God is Spirit, and there exists a spiritual communion between and indwelling among19 the three persons of the Trinity, the Holy Spirit can be said to be the Spirit of the Father and the Spirit of the Son.


        19 perichoresis (Greek περιχώρησις) or circumincession (Latin circuminsessio)


Aurelius Augustinus Hipponensis. Patrologiæ Cursus Completus: Series Prima. “De Trinitate” (“On the Trinity”). Ed. Migne, Jacques Paul. Vol. 42. Petit-Montrouge: Imprimerie Catholique, 1843.


At the Last Supper, Jesus answered this very question:

John 14:16-23 (KJV)

15If ye love me, keep my commandments. 16And I will pray the Father, and he shall give you another Comforter, that he may abide with you forever; 17Even the Spirit of truth; whom the world cannot receive, because it seeth him not, neither knoweth him: but ye know him; for he dwelleth with you, and shall be in you.
21He that hath my commandments, and keepeth them, he it is that loveth me: and he that loveth me shall be loved of my Father, and I will love him, and will manifest myself to him.
22Judas saith unto him, not Iscariot, Lord, how is it that thou wilt manifest thyself unto us, and not unto the world?
23Jesus answered and said unto him, If a man love me, he will keep my words: and my Father will love him, and we will come unto him, and make our abode with him.

On the night Jesus was betrayed, he comforted his disciples by telling them not to be troubled because his Father would send the Comforter, the Spirit of truth, to dwell with/in them. Jesus then went on to say that he, himself, would manifest to those who keep his commandments. Philip, not having made the connection between what Jesus had just said about the Spirit of Truth, asked Jesus how he would manifest himself to them. Jesus replied, that both he and His Father would be making their abode with them.

Of course, Paul is in total accord with what Jesus told his disciples, which is confirmed by what he had written to the church at Ephesus:

Ephesians 4:4-6 (KJV)

4There is one body, and one Spirit, even as ye are called in one hope of your calling; 5One Lord, one faith, one baptism,
6One God and Father of all, who is above all, and through all, and in you all.

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