The scripture does not explicitly tell us why Solomon was chosen by the Lord. However, there are two things that are certain;
- In 2 Samuel 12:25, at the birth of Solomon, the Lord sent word through Nathan the prophet to name him Jedidiah, that means 'loved by the Lord'.
- In 1 Kings 1:17, Bathsheba reminded David of his oath by the Lord that Solomon would be king after him. David affirmed his oath in 1 Kings 1:29-30.
It is worth noting that in the scripture, only a few characters the Lord had given them a name, and the names are accompanied with a promise;
- Abram was named Abraham, for the Lord had made him a father of many nations (Genesis 7:5)
- Sarai was named Sarah, for the Lord would bless her and will surely give Abraham a son, that she would be the mother of nations and kings of peoples would come from her (Genesis 7:16)
- Jacob was named Israel, the Lord blessed him because he had struggled with the Lord and with humans and had overcome. (Genesis 32:28)
- John the Baptist was named before birth. His name means 'God is gracious', for he would be a joy and delight to his parents, and many would rejoice because of his birth (Luke 1:13-14)
- Jesus was named before birth. His name means 'God is salvation' for He will be called the Son of the Most High. (Luke 1:31-32)
2 Samuel 7:12-16 is considered to be a messianic passage. The background is that David intended to build a house (The Holy Temple) for the Lord. However, instead of allowing David to build the temple, the Lord replied through Nathan the prophet that He would established David's house (kingdom) that would last forever by raising up his offspring after him. The passage also states that The Lord will be a father to the offspring and that the offspring will be his son. It appears to be a double prophesy, fulfilling on Solomon and eventually Jesus.
12 When your days are over and you rest with your ancestors, I will raise up your offspring to succeed you, your own flesh and blood, and I will establish his kingdom. 13 He is the one who will build a house for my Name, and I will establish the throne of his kingdom forever. 14 I will be his father, and he will be my son. When he does wrong, I will punish him with a rod wielded by men, with floggings inflicted by human hands. 15 But my love will never be taken away from him, as I took it away from Saul, whom I removed from before you. 16 Your house and your kingdom will endure forever before me; your throne will be established forever.’”
We may recall as well at the Baptism of Jesus, a voice came from heaven: "You are my Son, whom I love; with you I am well pleased." (Luke 3:22). The name Jedidiah means 'loved by the Lord', that was given to Solomon by Nathan the prophet at the Lord's command. The wisdom that Solomon exhibited evoke parallels with Jesus. His reign was safeguarded by the Lord in peace and prosperity highly resemblance to the Messianic era, often described in the prophetic books when the Lord restored the nation. With the above connections, it is plausible that Solomon is a metaphor for the Messiah.
Regarding the oath of David to Bathsheba, it is believed that the Lord's spirit inspired David to make the oath. A notable passage that support this belief is Psalm 72, which begins with 'Of Solomon' and ends with 'This concludes the prayers of David son of Jesse' (NIV). In this passage, all prophecies did happen during Solomon's reign. It is believed that David couldn't have foretold these events without the Lord's Spirit.