Who are 'those' in Galatians 4:4-5?
Galatians 4:4-7 (NASB)
4 But when the fullness of the time came, God sent forth His Son, born
of a woman, born under the Law, 5 so that He might redeem those who
were under [b]the Law, that we might receive the adoption as sons. 6
Because you are sons, God has sent forth the Spirit of His Son into
our hearts, crying, “Abba! Father!” 7 Therefore you are no longer a
slave, but a son; and if a son, then an heir [c]through God.
To redeem those who were under the Law.
At Galatians chapter 4 Paul speaks of the unique privilege, first granted to the fleshy Israelites to be " adopted as sons of God". Having received the spirit of adoption and depending on their ultimate faithfulness. their heavenly inheritance was assured by God's spirit.
Jesus assured his faithful disciples. " Do not be afraid, little flock, for your Father has chosen gladly to give you the kingdom."(Luke 12:32 (NASB) The expression "little flock" means that a relatively small number of humans are invited.
For seven years,(Daniel 9:27 The Abrahamic covenant)) this unique privilege of "adoption as sons of God was preached" to the Jews, but since not enough of them accepted the invitation, it was also preached to the nations. Cornelius being the first gentile to be "adopted as the son of God".
Compare, "The parable of the Great Banquet." Luke 14:15-24 NET
First call. Vs 17-20 To those invided, refers to the Israelite religious leaders.
Second call, Vs 21 " Then the master of the household was furious and said to his slave, ‘Go out quickly to the streets and alleys of the city,[y] and bring in the poor,[z] the crippled,[aa] the blind, and the lame.’ This call was to the ordinary Israelites, the poor and the helpless.
Since not enough Israelites responded to the invitation, the invitation was extended to the people of the Nations.
Third call. Vs 23 was to the Gentiles ."23 So the master said to his slave, ‘Go out to the highways and country roads and urge people to come in, so that my house will be filled.