No. The context is about turning back to the law. The Judaizers were plaguing the newly converted Christians to turn back to observing the Mosaic law, preaching circumcision, and animal sacrifices.
The word translated in the English as "elements" is the Greek "στοιχεῖον", transliterated as "stoicheion". It is defined as one of a row, hence a letter (of the alphabet), by ext. the elements (of knowledge). The elements are the fundamentals, an orderly arrangement like the basic components of philosophy, structure, or first principles. It refers to the elements and rudiments of religious training and the ceremonial precepts of worship. (1) (2)
The word is rendered as “rudiments” in Col. 2:8, 20 where the traditions of men, and ordinances of men are discussed. It is translated as “principles” in Heb. 5:12 for the first principles of the gospel.
The discussion in Gal. chap 4 continues from the same discussion in Gal. chap. 3 of being under the law.
"3 so also we, when we were babes, under the elements of the world were in servitude,
4 and when the fulness of time did come, God sent forth His Son, come of a woman, come under law,
5 that those under law he may redeem, that the adoption of sons we may receive; (YLT, Gal. 4:3-5)
Notice the connection made between vs. 3 and 4 equating "under the elements of the world" to "under law". Connections are also evident in the other verses between the ones chosen above. Notice the connection again in Gal. 4:9 & 10.
"9 and now, having known God -- and rather being known by God -- how turn ye again unto the weak and poor elements to which anew ye desire to be in servitude?
10 days ye observe, and months, and times, and years! (YLT)
What verse 9 calls "the weak and poor elements" are defined in vs. 10 as days, months, and times, and years. That they were turning to them "anew", meaning again or one more time spoke of those who had been previously under the law, brought out from that servitude, and were turning back to it again.
The discussion is still of being in servitude to the law. Every commentary on Gal. 4:8 jumps this verse from the context of "we, when we were babes" of vs. 3, to the pagan idolators. However, that is not the subject of this chapter, and something else should be considered.
Keeping with the context then, the lower case "g" in "gods' of vs. 8 is from the OT use of that word for those who handled and taught the law to the people - the Levitical priesthood.
"6 I -- I have said, `Gods ye [are], And sons of the Most High -- all of you,
7 But as man ye die, and as one of the heads ye fall," (Psa. 82:6-7)
"23 Declare the things that are coming hereafter, And we know that ye [are] gods, Yea, ye may do good or do evil, And we look around and see [it] together." (Isa. 41:23, YLT)
This same meaning was used by Christ in speaking to the Jews who were going to stone Him.
"34 Jesus answered them, `Is it not having been written in your law: I said, ye are gods?" (John 10:34, YLT)
In that same context, those who were teachers of the law were handling God's word, and were called "gods" with a lower case "g" as being His representatives to the Jews and the rest of the nations.
It is best to keep to the context and background of the scripture in this instance. The elements of the world were defined in subsequent verses as being under the law. Gal. 4:1-2 defines the "babes" under servitude, and Paul was stating that going back under the Mosaic law was going back under servitude. The entire subject was denouncing the Judaizing unbelievers who were trying to seduce the people to turn away from the freedom in Christ.
Attempting to make a link to the usage of "principalities and authorities" by referencing some other verses does not fit here. Col. 1:16 discusses the entirety of the things which Christ created, and therefore is not the same subject / context of the discussion in Gal.ch. 4. Col. 2:15 speaks of Christ stripping those principalities and authorities of their power under the law as Col. 2:14 stated that Christ had removed their handwritten ordinances against us.
Again, the scriptures at Titus 3:1, and Eph. 6:12 are a different subject matter and are not in any way a part of the "elements" of the Mosaic law of Gal. 4.
Strong's Gr 4747 - stoicheion - Biblehub
Ellicott's Commentary - Biblehub