1a- The construction Ἐν ἀρχῇ ἦν ὁ λόγος - John 1: 1a is explained in 1 John 1: 1-3:
“What was from the beginning, what we have heard, what we have seen with our eyes, what we have contemplated and felt our hands about the Logos of Life, (because Life was manifested, and we have seen it, and we bear witness , and we announce to you Eternal Life, which was before the Father, and has been revealed to us). What we have seen and heard we announce to you, so that you too may have fellowship with us and our fellowship truly is with the Father and His son, Jesus, the Messiah. ” BTX version
What is Logos?
The principle of the Logos is the Truth. Psalm 118 (119 HEB) .60,
The Logos is True. 2 Timothy 2:15
The True Logos is the Gospel. Ephesians 1:13,
The Logos became flesh. John 1:14,
God's Logos is the Truth. John 17:17,
The True Logos is a means of generation. James 1:18
The Logos of God is within the generated. 1 John 2:14,
The Logos of God is the Seed of God. Luke 8:11,
1b- The sentence “… ὁ λόγος ἦν πρὸς τὸν θεόν…” from John 1: 1b is not a usual syntactic construction in the Greek language Cohen, occurring in 1 Corinthians 12: 2: “… ἔθνη ἦτε πρὸς τὰ εἴδωλα…” where it reads : “Nations> Gentiles> pagans were true to idols…”, in which an attempt at spiritual communion will be seen. Another similar construction is found in 1 John 1: 2 “… ἥτις ἦν πρὸς τὸν πατέρα…” which reads “… which (Eternal Life) was for the Father…”, the relation existing between Eternal Life and the Father, widely described in the New Testament, especially in the Johannine writings, characterizing and defining the usual meaning of the preposition “πρὸς”. The defined article "τὸν", object of the preposition "πρὸς", defines, references and limits the affirmation of the object "θεόν" to יהוה.
1c - The sentence “… θεὸς ἦν ὁ λόγος…” John. 1: 1c is a predicative nominative construction (both main nouns in the sentence are in the nominative case and are accompanied by the standard copulative (connecting) verb, which is in the Indicative This syntactic construction occurs in Genesis 9:18; 24:16, 29; 28:19; Judges 11:18; 2 Samuel 9: 2; 20:26; 1 Kings 2:46; 1 Esther 2: 9, 17 ; Job 29:15; 32: 1; Jonah 3: 3; Zechariah 6: 1; Malachi. 1: 2; Isaiah 37:19; Ezekiel. 23: 2; Matthew 3: 4; 21:33; Mark. 7: 26; John 1: 1, 4; Acts 27: 8, where the part of the clause that is the object of the verb, is left without the article, excluding the Joanine verses.
θεὸς is characterized in John 1: 1c as a Name (Who is it), Nature (What is it) or Office (By who is it)?
Daniel B. Wallace in Greek Grammar: An Exegetical Syntax of the New Testament Daniel B. Wallace, from Editora Batista Regular do Brasil, First edition in Portuguese: 2009 (Excellent, worthy of purchase), on pages 255-270, precisely on the page 266 and 269, in item “c”, explains that the use of “θεὸς” anartro, ie, without an article in John 1: 1c (as, for example, in John 4:19; 6:70; 8:44; 9 : 17; 10: 1,13,33 and 12: 6), be POSSIBLY used as a qualitative noun (which refers to quality about someone) and I agree with him in this respect, however, I conceptualize using a terminology different from his:
The idea of a qualitative "θεóς" here is, according to my understanding, the idea that the Logos had all the attributes and qualities that the term "God" has in John 1: 1b. That is, he shared the substance of יהוה, although he, the Logos, became a hypostasis (person), reinforced by the vocative.
a) The context of John 1: 1-2 emphatically reports, using the duplicity that the Logos was with God, that is, the Logos was not “… τὸν θεόν….” of construction 1.b with whom he was at first, therefore, the author of the Gospel of John does not use “θεὸς” of construction 1.c in the same way that he used “… τὸν θεόν….” of construction 1.b
b) Jesus teaches that the Law named gods, in Greek “θεοί” (plural of “θεός”), to whom the Logos was addressed. Psalms 81: 6 Septuagint 82: 6 HEB, John 10: 34-35), and that these “gods” would die and fall like any mortal, so “θεοί” does not always mean יהוה's Hypostasis,
c) Other created beings were by profession (mission) “θεός” or אלהים equivalent as in Exodus 7.1 (Septuagint), Exodus 21: 6 22: 8-9, Psalm 81: 6 (82-6 HEB) and Zechariah 12: 8 HEB.
d) The standard of the syntactic construction is "... Noun noun ἦν Noun noun ..." and occurs in Genesis 9:18; 24: 16,29; 28: 19; Judges 11:18; 2 Samuel 9: 2; 20: 26; 1 Kings 2:46; 1 Esther 2: 9, 17; Job 32: 1; Jonah 3: 3; Zechariah 6: 1; Malachi 1: 2; Matthew 3: 4; 21:33, Mark 7:26; and Acts 27: 8 and the article construction after the verb "... Noun noun ἦν ὁ Noun noun ..." only occurs in John 1: 1 and 1: 4. What this means? The Greek article serves to conceptualize, transform into an entity, in terms of function, it identifies the identity of a being, class or quality, a good example is in Luke 12:58, where “the Judge” refers to a human person, as to divine judgment. Thus, the addition of an article, in John 1: 1c, fleeing syntactic familiarity is in the sense of leaving no doubt that the Logos is the subject of prayer, with all the emphasis instead of “θεὸς”.
e) An analysis of Zechariah 6: 1
καὶ ἐπέστρεψα καὶ ἦρα τοὺς ὀφθαλμούς μου καὶ εἶδον καὶ ἰδοὺ τέσσαρα ἅρματα ἐκπορευόμενα ἐκ μέσου δύο ὀρέων καὶ τὰ ὄρη ἦν ὄρη χαλκᾶ Zechariah 6: 1 - Septuagint (Greek Edition): Alfred Rahlfs, Robert Hanhart.
וָאָשֻׁ֗ב וָאֶשָּׂ֤א עֵינַי֙ וָֽאֶרְאֶ֔ה וְהִנֵּ֙ה אַרְבַּ֤ע מַרְכָּבוֹת֙ יֹֽצְא֔וֹת מִבֵּ֖ין שְׁנֵ֣י הֶֽהָרִ֑ים וְהֶהָרִ֖ים הָרֵ֥ים הָרֵ֥ינְחֹֽשֶׁ
Zechariah 6: 1 - Biblia Hebraica Stuttgartensia (Hebrew Bible, Masoretic Text or Hebrew Old Testament), edited by K. Elliger and W. Rudolph of the Deutsche Bibelgesellschaft, Stuttgart, Fourth Corrected Edition.
And I went back and looked up and saw, and, behold, four cars were coming out of the middle of two hills, and the hills were tan mountains. Jünemann's Bible - Zechariah 6: 1
It is notable that in the construction “… δύο ὀρέων καὶ τὰ ὄρη ἦν ὄρη χαλκᾶ” the noun “ὄρη” anartro, ie, without an article, as “θεὸς” in John 1: 1c, is characterizing, supported by an adjective, the subject “τὰ ὄρη ”, following this argument,“ θεὸς ”qualifies“ ὁ λόγος ”(the Logos).
The Hebrew syntactic construction in particular, in addition to Zechariah 6: 1, occurs in Genesis 27:22, where better translation “… but the hands are the hands of Esau.”, Genesis 31:43 “these daughters are my daughters”; Exodus 32:16 “the scripture is the same scripture”, 1 Samuel 1:24 “the very young boy”, 2 Chronicles 3: 6 “gold, gold from Parvaim” and Ezekiel 41: 6 “the sides (chambers) of side.
f) An analysis of Exodus 20:21:
εἱστήκει δὲ ὁ λαὸς μακρόθεν Μωυσῆς δὲ εἰσῆλθεν εἰς τὸν γνόφον οὗ ἦν ὁ θεός Exodus 20:21 Septuaginta (Greek Edition): Alfred Rahlfs.
וַיַּעֲמֹ֥ד הָעָ֖ם מֵרָחֹ֑ק וּמֹשֶׁה֙ נִגַּ֣שׁ אֶל־הָֽעֲרָפֶ֔ל אֲשֶׁר־שָׁ֖ם הָאֱלֹהִֽים׃ פ
Exodus 20:21 -Biblia Hebraica Stuttgartensia (Hebrew Bible, Masoretic Text or Hebrew Old Testament), edited by K. Elliger and W. Rudolph of the Deutsche Bibelgesellschaft, Stuttgart, Fourth Corrected Edition.
The people were afar, standing; Moses, however, came to the dark cloud where God was. Version ARA Exodus 20:21
The interlinear of Construction “… εἰς τὸν γνόφον οὗ ἦν ὁ θεός…” is εἰς τὸν γνόφον (into the thick cloud) οὗ (where when) ἦν ὁ θεός (was God). On the presence of God in the dense Cloud:
Then Solomon said, "The LORD has declared that he will dwell in thick darkness." Indeed, I have built a house for your dwelling, a place for your eternal dwelling. (1 Kings 8:12 ARA) ¹ (אֶל־הָֽעֲרָפֶ֔ל, Genesis 2:11, Exodus 9:26, Numbers 21:32, 1 Samuel 3: 3, 1 Samuel 9:10)
And when he said this, a cloud came that covered them with its shadow; and when they entered the cloud, they feared. And a voice came out of the cloud, saying, This is my beloved Son; I heard it. Luke 9: 34,35.
The verb ἦν in the context of Exodus 20:21 is explained by 1 Kings 8:12, acquiring an advance of linguistic meaning from “being” to “inhabiting”, which is again in agreement with the New Testament Theology regarding Logos and Patristic Theology referring to recent Christianity:
That is, that God was within the Anointed One, reconciling the world to himself, not taking into account the sins of men, and entrusted us with the Logos of Reconciliation. 2 Corinthians 5:19
Thus, the translation of John 1: 1-3, I read:
“Logos lived in the beginning, and Logos lived with God and God lived in Logos.
He lived in the beginning with God.
All reborns were made by him, and without him nothing that was done was done. ”
References: John 1: 12,13; 3: 3,6,7, 1 John 2:29; 3: 9; 4: 7; 5: 1,2,3,4,18; 2 Corinthians 5:17; Titus 3: 5; 1 Peter 1: 3.