The name of God which primarily connotes ‘’existence’’ wasn’t that far from the expression ‘life’’ as the words equally relate to ‘’existence’’ although the latter carries more meaning because life not only refers existence but to being alive per se.
The first part of the Divine Name in Exodus 3:14 LXX (''ego eimi ho on'') ''Ego eimi'' refers to Yahweh who is "always existing" (''Ho On''). Isaiah 48:12 (LXX) seems to speak of the same thing using different words ("I am..."I live forever" ἐγώ εἰμι πρῶτος καὶ ἐγώ εἰμι εἰς τὸν αἰῶνα Isaiah 48:12 LXX).
Isaiah 48:12 Brenton Septuagint Translation Hear me, O Jacob, and
Israel whom I call; I am the first, and I endure for ever.
The evidence seems to suggest that these two were synonymous ('the Living,' 'the Being') even in the Septuagint and thus, it could explain another facet of the Tetragrammaton. This could exactly be what's happening in Revelation 1:17-18. The author paraphrased the divine name.
Revelation 1:17-18 New Revised Standard Version (NRSV)
17 When I saw him, I fell at his feet as though dead. But he placed his right hand
on me, saying, “Do not be afraid; I am the first and the last, 18 and
the living one. I was dead, and see, I am alive forever and ever; and
I have the keys of Death and of Hades.
Revelation 1:17-18 (NA27)
Καὶ ὅτε εἶδον αὐτόν, ἔπεσα πρὸς τοὺς πόδας αὐτοῦ ὡς νεκρός· καὶ ἔθηκεν
τὴν δεξιὰν αὐτοῦ ἐπ' ἐμὲ λέγων Μὴ φοβοῦ· ἐγώ εἰμι ὁ πρῶτος καὶ ὁ
ἔσχατος, καὶ ὁ ζῶν καὶ ἐγενόμην νεκρὸς καὶ ἰδοὺ ζῶν εἰμὶ εἰς τοὺς
αἰῶνας τῶν αἰώνων καὶ ἔχω τὰς κλεῖς τοῦ θανάτου καὶ τοῦ ᾅδου. The
evidence seems to indicate that Father has life in his name He gave
the Son to have life in his name too. The Son also raised himself
from the dead because the Father raised him through his name. (John
2:18 and 10:18 )
Actually, in Revelation the author had an another way of putting the divine name into different words. He actually used all of the definition of the divine name in Hebrew!
The passage of Revelation which explicitely translates YHWH according
to the first meaning above is the praise by the four living creatures,
which corresponds to the praise by the seraphim in Isaiah's vision:
Seraphim stood above Him, each having six wings: with two he covered
his face, and with two he covered his feet, and with two he flew. And
one called out to another and said, "Holy, Holy, Holy, YHWH Sabaoth;
the whole earth is full of His glory." (Is 6:2-3)
And the four living creatures, each one of them having six wings, are
full of eyes around and within; and they did not have rest day and
night, saying: "Holy, Holy, Holy, Lord God Almighty, He Who Was and He
Who Is and He Who Is to come (ho ēn kai ho ōn kai ho erchomenos)."
Thus, this passage of Revelation expands the exegetic non-literal
translation in the Septuagint of the full Name of God in Ex 3:14, "Ego
eimi ho ōn" = "I Am He Who Is", including the three meanings of the
Hebrew imperfect form. (Tetragrammaton originally יהיה (yihayah)
(3PersMascSing 'exist, be') and subsequently the nominal form (יהוה)
(the Being)?, Johannes, February 03 2018).
The Jewish encyclopedia refers to the divine also as having the sense of ''to live''.
In appearance, Yhwh is the third person singular imperfect "ḳal" of
the verb ("to be"), meaning, therefore, "He is," or "He will be," or,
perhaps, "He lives," the root idea of the word being,probably, "to
blow," "to breathe," and hence, "to live." (NAMES OF GOD. By:
Executive Committee of the Editorial Board., J. F. McLaughlin, Judah
David Eisenstein, 1906).
Based on this knowledge, we interpret the life in himself of the Father refers to his divine name in Exodus 3:14 (LXX).
John 5:26 New Revised Standard Version (NRSV) 26 For just as the
Father has life in himself, so he has granted the Son also to have
life in himself;
John 5:26 NA27 ὥσπερ γὰρ ὁ πατὴρ ἔχει ζωὴν ἐν ἑαυτῷ, οὕτως καὶ τῷ
υἱῷ ἔδωκεν ζωὴν ἔχειν ἐν ἑαυτῷ·
Further support for this was the way the gospel of John explicitly spoke of attaining eternal life via the Name of the Lord which forms an inclusio in the gospel.
John 1:12-13 New Revised Standard Version (NRSV) 12 But to all who
received him, who believed in his name, he gave power to become
children of God, 13 who were born, not of blood or of the will of the
flesh or of the will of man, but of God.
John 20:31 New Revised Standard Version (NRSV) 31 But these are
written so that you may come to believe[a] that Jesus is the Messiah,
the Son of God, and that through believing you may have life in his
In John 10:18, Jesus said that he has authority to ‘’take/receive’’ to receive life after he died.
John 10:18 New Revised Standard Version (NRSV) 18 No one takes it from
me, but I lay it down of my own accord. I have power to lay it down,
and I have power to take it up again. I have received this command
from my Father.”
If that's the case, how does this dead man have any authority, while dead, to receive life? This make any sense because death in the New Testament teaches that death was a separation of the spirit of man and the body that decays and dies (1 Cor 2:11, 2 Cor 4:16). Jesus the Messiah, the Only One who was ''God-bodily'' (Greek: theotetos somatikos, Colossians 2:9) will raise us from the dead by his own power, as Philippians 3:20-21 said. As to how exactly that would occur/happen.
- John 5;24-28 said that Jesus himself will raise the dead from their
tombs via his own voice. Very similar to how Jesus raised Lazarus
(John 11:38-34). Jesus was raised by God the Father via Divine Power
which came from the Name of Yahweh which was the Name also of Jesus.
That was how Jesus raised himself from the dead, via the same
powerful Name which he and God the Father equally possess and that
was also the power that will raise peoples from the dead (cf. John
1:12-13, 2:19, 2:19, 5:26, 10:18, Phil 2:9-11, 3:20-21).
John 8:58 was quite clear that he claimed to be Yahweh. John 14:9-11 also tells us that he's equal with God the Father as possessor of the divine name from which he is able to do all things.
John 14:9–10 (NRSV) 8 Philip said to him, “Lord, show us the Father,
and we will be satisfied.” 9 Jesus said to him, “Have I been with you
all this time, Philip, and you still do not know me? Whoever has
seen me has seen the Father. How can you say, ‘Show us the Father’?
10 Do you not believe that I am in the Father and the Father is in
me? The words that I say to you I do not speak on my own; but the
Father who dwells in me does his works. 11 Believe me that I am in
the Father and the Father is in me; but if you do not, then believe
me because of the works themselves. 13 I will do whatever you
ask in my name, so that the Father may be glorified in the Son.
14 If in my name you ask me for anything, I will do it.
The same motif of power that comes from the Name of Jesus was very present in the book of the Acts of the Apostles. The book even ascribed the power to the person of Jesus himself!
- Acts 2:22 tells us that God did miracles through ‘Jesus’. Luke didn't
write that God did his miracles through ‘his power’ but through
‘Jesus’ . He considered Jesus himself to be the power of God. The
reason is found in the name which belongs to Jesus. Acts 4:7 shows
that the ‘name’ which heals is associated with ‘power’. Acts 2:21
and Acts 2:38 actually equated the name of Jesus with the name of
Yahweh. That’s why only the name of Jesus has power to save
according to Acts 4:12! Acts 4:7 shows that the name which heals is
associated with power! The apostles healed the sick and performed
exorcisms not by their own power, but by the power of Jesus. The
apostles did not attributed the power to God, but to Jesus (Acts 3:6,
3:16, 4:7–12, 16:18, 22:16). The book of Acts is very consistent.
Both God and the apostles attributed the power to perform miracles to
the person of Jesus and in his name alone!
Acts 2:22 New Revised Standard Version (NRSV) 22 “You that are
Israelites,[a] listen to what I have to say: Jesus of Nazareth, a man
attested to you by God with deeds of power, wonders, and signs
that God did through him among you, as you yourselves know — Acts
4:7–12 (NRSV) 7 When they had made the prisoners stand in their midst,
they inquired, “By what power or by what name did you do this?” 8
Then Peter, filled with the Holy Spirit, said to them, “Rulers of the
people and elders, 9 if we are questioned today because of a good deed
done to someone who was sick and are asked how this man has been
healed, let it be known to all of you, and to all the people of
Israel, that this man is standing before you in good health by the
name of Jesus Christ of Nazareth, whom you crucified, whom God raised
from the dead. 12 There is salvation in no one else, for there is
no other name under heaven given among mortals by which we must be saved.”
Acts 3:6 New Revised Standard Version (NRSV) 6 But Peter said, “I
have no silver or gold, but what I have I give you; in the name of
Jesus Christ of Nazareth,[a] stand up and walk.”
Acts 3:16 New Revised Standard Version (NRSV) 16 And by faith in his
name, his name itself has made this man strong, whom you see and know;
and the faith that is through Jesus[a] has given him this perfect
health in the presence of all of you. Acts 16:18 New Revised Standard
Version (NRSV) 18 She kept doing this for many days. But Paul, very
much annoyed, turned and said to the spirit, “I order you in the
name of Jesus Christ to come out of her.” And it came out that very
Based on Scripture, the linked of the two titles that the New Testent ascribed to Jesus, namely, "first and last" (Rev 1:17, 18, 22:13) and "I Am" (John 8:58, Rev 1:17) refers to His divine essence, making Him ontologically equal with God the Father.
- The Old Testament shows that no one else received sacrifice except
Yahweh. That differentiates Yahweh from any other being.
Sacrifice is a very strong evidence for "worship" at the highest
order. And in other heathen religions, sacrifice is only offered to a
god by priests. So, in the ancient world, priests always always offer
sacrifice to a god(s)/God, never to any human.
Post-70 A.D., the Jews and Christians are equally offering
(bloodless) sacrifice (worship) to Yahweh.
However, Christians are offering sacrifices to both God and Christ.
In Revelation 14:4 , 20:6 this is very very evident.
Revelation 14:4, 20:6, priests offer sacrifices to both God and Jesus. Sacrifice in the Old Testament is exclusively offered to a god, never
to a man. Israel obviously offers sacrifices to Yahweh alone. Thus,
here Jesus is shown to be co-equal with God the Father in the strictest sense.