This is the verse in question:
"But all the silver and gold, and vessels of bronze and iron, are [a]consecrated to the Lord; they [b]shall come into the treasury of the Lord.”- Joshua 6:19
What purpose does this treasury serve?
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The English word "treasury" is translated from the Heb. "אוֹצָר", "otsar". (Strong's Heb. 214). The definition is treasure, store, treasury, or storehouse. Source: Biblehub
It was the collection of all coin and goods for the operation of the tabernacle.
Excerpt from the Benson Commentary -
"Treasury of the Lord — To be employed wholly for the uses of the tabernacle, not to be applied to the use of any private person or priest." Source: Biblehub
Excerpt from Gill's Exposition -
"they shall come into the treasury of the Lord; be brought into the tabernacle, as Kimchi and Abarbinel interpret it, into some apartment there destined for such service, and which is clear from Joshua 6:24; the same where the offering of the officers was brought after the battle with Midian, Numbers 31:54. " Source: Ibid
Clarke's Commentary discusses the reason the spoils of Jericho were reserved only for YHWH's temple storehouse from Josh. 6:24:
"Only the silver, and the gold - they put into the treasury, etc. - The people were to have no share of the spoils, because they had no hand in the conquest. God alone overthrew the city; and into his treasury only the spoils were brought. This is one proof that the agitation of the air, by the sound of the people's voice, was not the cause of the fall of the city walls." Source: Clarke's Commentary
Further reading about the Treasury is available at BibleStudyTools