The Greek text of Luke 24:44 states:

Εἶπεν δὲ πρὸς αὐτούς Οὗτοι οἱ λόγοι μου οὓς ἐλάλησα πρὸς ὑμᾶς ἔτι ὢν σὺν ὑμῖν, ὅτι δεῖ πληρωθῆναι πάντα τὰ γεγραμμένα ἐν τῷ νόμῳ Μωϋσέως καὶ τοῖς προφήταις καὶ ψαλμοῖς περὶ ἐμοῦ.

The NASB translates δὲ as "now", but John Wenham in Easter Enigma, page 107, states that this kind of translation

give[s] a much sharper suggestion of chronological continuity than the Greek justifies. The paragraphs [starting with verses 44 and 50] are linked by a weak connective non-temporal particle (de) which would be better left untranslated.

How plausible is Wenham's suggested (non-)translation of δὲ in this verse?

1 Answer 1


Thayer (see under δέ - Strong 1161) says the following :

a weak adversative particle, generally placed second in its clause; but, on the other hand, and.

δέ (related to δή, as μέν to μήν, cf. Klotz ad Devar. ii. 2, p. 355), a particle adversative, distinctive, disjunctive, but, moreover

(1) universally, by way of opposition and distinction; it is added to statements opposed to a preceding statement

(5) it serves to mark a transition to something new (δέ metabatic); by this use of the particle, the new addition is distinguished from and, as it were, opposed to what goes before:

I would suggest that, rather than ignore the word, as some translations do and rather than make it too strong an assertion ('now') the translation 'moreover' as above in Thayer, is appropriate in this particular place.

The transition is conceptual, not a transition of time - now this, now the next thing.

It is a transition of argument. This is true, moreover this also is true.

And he took it, and did eat before them. Moreover he said unto them, These are the words which I spake unto you, while I was yet with you, that all things must be fulfilled, which were written in the law of Moses, and in the prophets, and in the psalms, concerning me. [Luke 24:34, 44 KJV with the addition of 'moreover'.]

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