Ezekiel 38 (NET Bible)
A Prophecy Against Gog
38 The Lord’s message came to me: 2 “Son of man, turn toward[a] Gog, of the land of Magog, the chief prince of Meshech and Tubal.[d] Prophesy against him
Biblical Hermeneutics Stack Exchange is a question and answer site for professors, theologians, and those interested in exegetical analysis of biblical texts. It only takes a minute to sign up.Sign up to join this community
Among other possibilities, Gog and Magog — Modern Apocalypticism — Wikipedia suggests that Gog and Magog correspond to the current Russian and Chinese people. For instance, "US President George W. Bush, in the prelude to the 2003 Invasion of Iraq, Bush told French President Jacques Chirac, 'Gog and Magog are at work in the Middle East.'".
But that association isn't recent: "In fact, Gog and Magog were held by the Mongol to be their ancestors, at least by some segment of the population. As traveler and Friar Riccoldo da Monte di Croce put it in c. 1291, 'They say themselves that they are descended from Gog and Magog: and on this account they are called Mogoli, as if from a corruption of Magogoli'.".
Today, there are various publications (not generally accepted by historians) promoting this view. Here is one example:
Scholars generally agree that “Gog” is Russia, and that “the land of Magog” includes China. The descendants of Meshech and Tubal have been found together throughout history. In Assyrian and Greek histories, Meshech appears as Musku, Muski or Mushki—all names related to the Russian spelling of Moscow, as you can read in the International Standard Bible Encyclopedia. What about Tubal? On the eastern side of the Ural Mountains lies the city of Tobolsk, named after the Tobol River, a name derived from Tubal. Tobolsk was once the seat of Russian government over Siberia and was basically considered Russia’s Asian capital.
There is also a name for all of the Russian people in Ezekiel 38:2. There is controversy over how the Hebrew word rosh should be translated in this verse. The King James Version uses the adjective “chief.” But the correct rendering (used by the Moffatt, New King James and others) uses the word not as an adjective, but as a proper noun: Rosh. Thus, that verse should read, “the prince of Rosh, Meshech and Tubal.”
Rosh was the ancient name of Russia, once called Rus. Many encyclopedias and commentaries (such as the Jamieson, Fausset and Brown Commentary) recognize this. So who is this “prince” of Russia, Moscow and Tobolsk? The use of all three names shows that this is an individual ruler of all the peoples of Russia, from the west to the east. The reference to the cities of Moscow and Tobolsk helps us see how vast Russian territory is in these latter days.
— theTrumpet.com - World News, Economics and Analysis Based on Bible Prophecy
We do not exactly know who Gog is. That is to be revealed near the end of days. What we do know is that Gog is the king of the land of Magog. This land is named after the person Magog in Genesis 10:2 who is a son of Japheth. Thus Magog is somewhere in Eurasia. Gog is supposed to come from a place in the far north as it says in Ezekiel 39:2. Furthermore, Gog is supposed to have a lot of power over Meshekh and Tuval (one of these is likely Turkey) and he is supposed to attack Israel along with the armies of Meshekh, Tuval (one of these is likely Turkey), Persia (Iran), Cush (Ethiopia), and Put.