Isaiah chapter 27 is about the deliverance of Israel. It is thesecond "vineyard song", the first being in Isaiah 5:1-7. The vineyard represents Israel, whom God loves, in spite of her unfaithfulness and waywardness.
Isaiah 34 is God's pronouncement of judgement against the nations and God is warning them that he is angry with them, and that his wrath will be poured out on them. This is about "the day of the Lord".
Isaiah 42 is a reminder to Israel of the consequences of failing to obey God, namely being plundered and looted by the Assyrians and the Babylonians. Babylon conquered Israel, not because their gods were stronger than the Lord, but because the Lord was punishing his people.
According to the NIV Study Bible, Isaiah 42:25 is to be understood as a foretaste of the coming "day of the Lord".
It is worth remembering that God's "fury" and "anger" is righteous and just, unlike the emotions experienced by humans.
Edit required for clarification: We need to understand the context in which Isaiah 27:4 speaks of the fury (or anger) of God. At the outset, God speaks of the day when he will punish Leviathan, the serpent, the dragon of the sea. The imagery is of evil powers that oppose God and the death of Leviathan symbolises the end of evil, Satan and the demonic forces hostile to God. Genesis 3 and Revelation also make reference to the serpent and how God’s wrath will be poured out on the forces of evil at a future point in time.
The vineyard represents God’s people and the promise in Isaiah chapter 27 is that God will watch over them in spite of their unfaithfulness. Despite God’s punishment on Israel (exile and captivity by her enemies) God will show them mercy and restore them. God’s anger against Israel is tempered and will be no more when they return to Him.
Isaiah 34 is a warning to the nations of the earth, the enemies of God’s people, of the future day of God’s wrath. Isaiah 42 introduces God’s royal servant who will bring in an era of universal justice after restoring His people. Verses 22 to 25 is a reminder that Israel was punished because of their rebellion against God – that is why God poured out his anger on them, because they did not learn from the lessons from the past.
So, to make it clear, God’s anger can be directed against His own people when they are disobedient but his fury will be unleashed against the enemies of His people.
Now that the question has been editied, the answer becomes clear. The "fury" in Isaiah 27:4 is not directed against Israel and Judah, God's people. God's "fury" is directed against her enemies, both those from the past and those nations in the future who continue to attack God's people. God shows compassion to His people and chastises them, but his righteous judgments against the nations is poured out in full.