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This Psalm seems to point out that there was rain and thunderstorm during the night they crossed the Red sea

Psalms 77:15-20 NASB

15You have by Your [j]power redeemed Your people, The sons of Jacob and Joseph. Selah.16 The waters saw You, O God; The waters saw You, they were in anguish; The deeps also trembled. 17 The clouds poured out water; The skies gave forth a sound; Your arrows [k]flashed here and there. 18 The sound of Your thunder was in the whirlwind; The lightnings lit up the world; The earth trembled and shook. 19 Your way was in the sea And Your paths in the mighty waters, And Your footprints may not be known. 20 You led Your people like a flock By the hand of Moses and Aaron.

The narrative of that event in Exodus only tells us of a strong east wind which pushed the water backwards.

Exodus 14:21 NASB

21 Then Moses stretched out his hand over the sea; and the Lord [l]swept the sea back by a strong east wind all night and turned the sea into dry land, so the waters were divided. 22 The sons of Israel [m]went through the midst of the sea on the dry land, and the waters were like a wall to them on their right hand and on their left.

Was there rain and thunder the night they crossed the Red Sea?

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    See also Psalm 29. I don't think that the (entire) text is (strictly) about the parting of the Red Sea. The end of verse 18, for instance, seems to echo the fall of Jericho, under Joshua. Other verses seem to echo Creation Week and/or Noah's Flood. Verse 19 seems sapiential in nature, echoing the Wisdom of Solomon, 5:10-12. Moreover, they seem to speak of God's usual or everyday wonders, since the ancients saw in various elements of nature a manifestation of the divine (the thunder as His voice, the lightning as His arrow, the rain as His blessing, etc).
    – Lucian
    Apr 25, 2019 at 1:04

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This is actually simpler than it appears. It is easy to assume (incorrectly) that Ps 77:16-20 is discussing a single event - this is not necessary.

Indeed, the passages referenced might be discussing several events associated with the exodus such as:

  • Ps 77:16 - might be alluding to both the crossing of the Red Sea and the first plague of blood in the waters and sea.
  • Ps 77:17, 18 - might be alluding to the seventh plague of hail as recorded in Ex 9:23, "So Moses stretched out his staff toward heaven, and the LORD sent thunder and hail, and lightning struck the earth. ... "
  • Ps 77:19 - presumably alludes to the crossing of the Red Sea
  • Ps 77:20 - presumably alludes to the wanderings in the desert for almost 40 years.

Thus, I see no contradiction here at all.

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Was there rain and thunder when they crossed the Red Sea as alluded in Psalms 77:15-20?

Summary: No. They didn't have actual rain or thunder as we think of them. What God gave the people to help them cross the Red Sea caused plenty of water and loud sounds to deal with though.

There actually is something in Exodus regarding a “pillar of cloud” and a "pillar of fire" that God gave the people to help them as they traveled. It is just back in Exodus 13.

Exodus 13:20-22 (NASB)

20 Then they set out from Succoth and camped in Etham on the edge of the wilderness. 21 The LORD was going before them in a pillar of cloud by day to lead them on the way, and in a pillar of fire by night to give them light, that they might [a]travel by day and by night. 22 [b]He did not take away the pillar of cloud by day, nor the pillar of fire by night, from before the people.

One key point is in the last verse, which notes that God always used the pillars of cloud and fire to be protective of the people. Apparently, God was controlling where the water went, but that was away from the people as they crossed the Red Sea.

Water was headed in every direction, accept toward them. It was especially sent toward the Egyptians. The Israelites (Exodus 14:19) saw that Pharaoh was chasing them and turned to Moses, who turned to God.

Exodus 14:19-22 (NASB)

19 The angel of God, who had been going before the camp of Israel, moved and went behind them; and the pillar of cloud moved from before them and stood behind them. 20 So it came between the camp of Egypt and the camp of Israel; and there was the cloud [a]along with the darkness, yet it gave light at night. Thus the one did not come near the other all night. 21 Then Moses stretched out his hand over the sea; and the LORD [b]swept the sea back by a strong east wind all night and turned the sea into dry land, so the waters were divided. 22 The sons of Israel [c]went through the midst of the sea on the dry land, and the waters were like a wall to them on their right hand and on their left.

We read that they were walking across the “sea on the dry land” .

In Psalms 77:15-20 it does have “The clouds poured out water; The skies gave forth a sound;” etc., but that, along with the “arrow flashed here and there”, “lightnings lit up the world”, etc. could be a way of describing the pillars of cloud and fire.

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Exodus 14:

21 Then Moses stretched out his hand over the sea; and the Lord swept the sea back by a strong east wind all night and turned the sea into dry land, so the waters were divided. 22 The sons of Israel went through the midst of the sea on the dry land, and the waters were like a wall to them on their right hand and on their left.

This was the scene from the eyes of the Israelites. From the Egyptians' perspective, it was a lot scarier, Psalm 77:

16When the waters saw you, O God,
when the waters saw you, they were afraid;
indeed, the deep trembled.
17The clouds poured out water;
the skies gave forth thunder;
your arrows flashed on every side.
18The crash of your thunder was in the whirlwind;
your lightnings lighted up the world;
the earth trembled and shook.

Was there rain and thunder when they crossed the Red Sea as alluded in Psalms 77:15-20?

That depended on whether you were an Israelite or an Egyptian pursuing them.

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There is a tendency to think that the Psalms were written after the Torah, by people completely aware of what was written earlier, and should therefore agree with it in every detail. But if we consider that the stories began in oral tradition and were told or sung around various campfires, it would only be natural that various versions of the saga would emerge. A song sung in one tribal camp would not be the same as another from a different tribal tradition. In this scenario, the versions commemorated by various old songs worked their way into the Torah, while others may have fed into the psalms. By the same token, some of the psalms were surely written much later than the Torah; but this does not mean that those who wrote them knew the Exodus version exactly, because the author of the psalm may not have had access to the written version of Exodus. If we picture David as the author of most of the psalms, could he even read and write, or were his songs written down by a scribe long after they were composed? Do we need to reconcile every seeming contradiction in the bible, or is it better to accept the ambiguity that comes from the fact that these are different accounts by different authors?

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The Bible is clear in Psalm 77 that there was rain and there was thunder and lightning and also even alludes to a whirlwind or tornado. Sometimes I think we put God in a box and say that couldn’t have happened but it did happen and it is clear that God used a tornado probably on both sides to hold up the water. Throughout the Bible, especially through the Psalms and Isaiah, God reveals himself and how he speaks through the thunder, the lightning, and the whirlwind.

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