First, I could not find any instance of κόσμος (kosmos) referring to the Roman world, nor to Judaism specifically. οἰκουμένη (oikoumené) tends to used in these meanings, eg, Luke 2:1, Acts 11:28, etc. Further, I could not find an instance of κόσμος (kosmos) referring to carnal (or unconverted or wicked) people exclusively.
BDAG lists eight meanings for κόσμος (kosmos), the most of which (three are essentially Greek literature uses) all surround the totality of humanity, eg,
#3. the sum total of everything here and now
#4. the sum total of all things above the level of the animals
#5. planet earth as a place inhabitation
#6. humanity in general
#7. the system of human existence
Thus, there is little that is exclusive about the meaning of this word. It appears to include everything about the current world of humanity.
1 John 2:17 should not be separated from the previous two verses. Paul presents a singular choice - to love the Father (and all that entails) or to love the world. He even lists that which defines love of the world - desire of the flesh, desire of the eyes, and the pride of riches; these three create our human love of the world and all it offers.
In order to help make this decision, John then reminds us (v17) that the world (all who love it) will pass away but those who love the Father will live forever (NIV, NRSV, NLT, NASB, etc). The promise of a new world consisting of a new heaven and new earth occurs in other places as well, 2 Peter 3:13, Rev 21:1. See also Matt 24:29-31.