[Luke 19:44 NLT] (44) They will crush you into the ground, and your children with you. Your enemies will not leave a single stone in place, because you did not accept your opportunity for salvation."
[Luke 19:44 MGNT] (44) καὶ ἐδαφιοῦσίν σε καὶ τὰ τέκνα σου ἐν σοί καὶ οὐκ ἀφήσουσιν λίθον ἐπὶ λίθον ἐν σοί ἀνθ’ ὧν οὐκ ἔγνως τὸν καιρὸν τῆς ἐπισκοπῆς σου
Psalm 137: 8 Wretched daughter of Babylon! blessed shall he be who shall reward thee as thou hast rewarded us. 9 Blessed shall he be who shall seize and dash thine infants against the rock. Compiled from the Translation by Sir Lancelot C. L. Brenton 1851
[Psa 137:8-9 LXX] (8) θυγάτηρ Βαβυλῶνος ἡ ταλαίπωρος μακάριος ὃς ἀνταποδώσει σοι τὸ ἀνταπόδομά σου ὃ ἀνταπέδωκας ἡμῗν (9) μακάριος ὃς κρατήσει καὶ ἐδαφιεῗ τὰ νήπιά σου πρὸς τὴν πέτραν
There is probably a general allusion here but let us not be too specific. The only words Luke 19:44 and Ps 137:9 have in common are "dashing babies".
However, the same pair of words also appear in 2 Kings 8:12; Isaiah 13:16-18; Hosea 10:14, 13:16, Nah 3:10, etc, and also in the Homer's Iliad, xxii. 63: "My bleeding infants dashed against the floor." (Thanks to Ellicott for this reference.)
This ancient barbarous behaviour was a sad but common practice of ancient warfare that has been replaced with more modern barbarism that is just as hideous.
There is an important difference between Luke 19:44 and Ps 137:9,
- Luke 19:44 is discussing the Roman army despoiling Jerusalem and its inhabitants
- Ps 137:9 is discussing and un-named army that would destroy Edom, the "daughter of Babylon" (v7 & 8) and kill its inhabitants.
Thus, dashing infants against the ground or rocks is general figure of speech denoting merciless warfare (Isa 13:18) by the marauding army against its unfortunate victims.