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I understand they both translate to the article "the" but is there any significant difference between these two words?

I am looking at their use in Revelation 7:12 and Revelation 7:14.

Rev 7:12, 14 KJV - 12 Saying, Amen: Blessing, and glory, and wisdom, and thanksgiving, and honour, and power, and might, be unto our God for ever and ever. Amen. ... 14 And I said unto him, Sir, thou knowest. And he said to me, These are they which came out of great tribulation, and have washed their robes, and made them white in the blood of the Lamb.

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Rev. 7:12 λέγοντες· ἀμήν, ἡ εὐλογία καὶ ἡ δόξα καὶ ἡ σοφία καὶ ἡ εὐχαριστία καὶ ἡ τιμὴ καὶ ἡ δύναμις καὶ ἡ ἰσχὺς τῷ θεῷ ἡμῶν εἰς τοὺς αἰῶνας τῶν αἰώνων· ἀμήν.

Rev. 7:14 καὶ εἴρηκα αὐτῷ· κύριέ μου, σὺ οἶδας. καὶ εἶπέν μοι· οὗτοί εἰσιν οἱ ἐρχόμενοι ἐκ τῆς θλίψεως τῆς μεγάλης καὶ ἔπλυναν τὰς στολὰς αὐτῶν καὶ ἐλεύκαναν αὐτὰς ἐν τῷ αἵματι τοῦ ἀρνίου.

  • ἡ is nominative fem singular

  • τῆς is genitive fem singular

οὗτοί εἰσιν οἱ ἐρχόμενοι ἐκ τῆς θλίψεως τῆς μεγάλης

The articular participle οἱ ἐρχόμενοι is found in a this is that clause οὗτοί εἰσιν οἱ ἐρχόμενοι "these are the ones coming. ἐρχόμενοι followed by ἐκ with the genitive marks a movement "out from" an event τῆς θλίψεως τῆς μεγάλης the great tribulation.

In the Apocalypse, John uses ἐκ with the genitive frequently. Take a look at Rev. 16:13.

Rev. 16:13 Καὶ εἶδον ἐκ τοῦ στόματος τοῦ δράκοντος καὶ ἐκ τοῦ στόματος τοῦ θηρίου καὶ ἐκ τοῦ στόματος τοῦ ψευδοπροφή του πνεύματα τρία ἀκάθαρτα ὡς βάτραχοι·

And I saw [coming] out of the mouth of the dragon and out of the mouth of the beast and out of the mouth of the false prophet, three unclean spirits like frogs;

Both the Apocalypse and John's Gospel show frequent use of ἐκ with the genitive. Compared to the synoptic Gospels John stands out in this regard.

In regard to the Ancient Greek Article:

It it is both similar and distinct from the English Article. Intro courses often stress the similarities. Long term students of the language will find out how important it is to become familiar with the peculiarities.

Suggested reading:

Chapter 6: Richard A. Hoyle, Scenarios, discourse and translation. SIL 2008

https://www.sil.org/system/files/reapdata/17/80/79/17807987582008905937674262856095982918/50670_Hoyle_ScenariosDiscourseTranslation.pdf

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