To simplify the question, "Who causeth all..." one merely has to look at the previous verses,
"And I beheld another beast coming up out of the earth; and he had two
horns like a lamb, and he spake as a dragon.
12 And he exerciseth all the power of the first beast before him, and
causeth the earth and them which dwell therein to worship the first
beast, whose deadly wound was healed".(Rev. 13:11-12)
The "one" doing the causing is the 2nd Beast; the image the 2nd Beast breathes 'life' into is also "caused" by him. Since he is the "motivator" of all that is happening, "he" is the subject of verses 11-16.
Identifying the Beast of the Earth
In deciphering who the "Beast of the Earth" is, we must review the 4 Basic Hermeneutics of eschatology: Preterist, Idealist, Historicist, and Futurist/Dispensationalist. Each one has a different answer, depending on which hermeneutic you use.
An Idealist view would state that there is no exact interpretation of a specific person or time, but a contest between the forces of darkness and light. Matthew Henry's Full Commentary likens this beast to Papal Authority, with the 2 horns being "ecclesial and secular". Of course there is no way to verify this, but if you accept the viewpoint that "Rome" is the 1st Beast, then you follow with the Roman Catholic Church as being the 2nd.
The Problem with this interpretation is with Rev. 17:8(KJV),
"The beast that thou sawest was, and is not; and shall ascend out of
the bottomless pit, and go into perdition:"
Rome, the "kingdom" at the time of John, was NOT the Beast; the angel told John this truth. So any "Idealist" interpretation that would categorize that would be false.
The next view is more specific, but easier to refute: the Preterist Hermeneutic. To understand the Presterist Hermeneutic, you must agree that all(or almost all) prophecy was fulfilled by 70AD, the date of the Destruction of the Temple in Jerusalem. Preterism is very clear about Nero Caesar as being the "Beast" but gets murky when describing the High Priest at the time of the Destruction of the Temple, as "The Beast of the Earth", as there is little historical validity to the claim, and furthermore, nothing "miraculous" is attributed to him.
The Main Objection to this Hermeneutic is John wrote Revelations in 95AD, so it would be antithetical to say in Rev. 1:1(KJV)," things which must shortly come to pass" They counter with numerous arguments, but church Historians, including Irenaeus, state John's exile at Patmos was during the time of Domitian (81-96AD), which was clearly after time of the Temple Destruction.
The next hermeneutic to review is the Futurist/Dispensational. The main consideration of this hermeneutic is it points to a "future" fulfillment of all prophetic activity, usually starting with Chapter 4 of Revelations, although Dispensationalists agree that the "man-child" of Rev. 12:5 is Christ; Futurists have another interpretation. Most Futurists/Dispensationalists concur that the "Beast of the Earth" is an unholy alliance between a world government leader(Antichrist), and apostate religious leader(False Prophet) who would seek to impose their will on mankind during the last 7 years before Christ's Return to Earth.
The vast majority identify the False Prophet as being the "Roman Catholic Church", in some future apostate role, and again, it can't be Rome as was pointed out with the Idealist Hermeneutic.
The last hermeneutic, the Historicist, is the one most fraught with danger, as it has been the most misused of all the hermeneutics. A Historicist View takes the entire view of history in looking for fulfillment of biblical prophecy; it sees direct fulfillment, unlike the Idealist View, and it isn't confined to the 70AD cutoff, like Preterism, or the last 7 years, like Futurism or Dispensationalism.
The most frequent cause of misuse is identifying the person of the Antichrist; Martin Luther, in 1519 he called Pope Leo X "the Antichrist", to which Pope Leo promptly repaid him his insult. Earlier, when the Holy Roman Emperor Fredrick II(1194-1250) rebuffed Pope Gregory IX's request for a Crusade, the later called him "Antichrist", and this title was carried on by Innocent IV, Gregory's successor. This caused Fredrick II to hire a theologian who proclaimed that "666 spelled the name of Innocent IV, and therefore there was no doubt that Innocent IV was the "true" Antichrist." Neither instances could be rightly claimed, however, as again, the Antichrist is not Roman.
The Historicist View takes in the full spectrum of history, and I believe, when rightly applied, provides the best Hermeneutic in understanding the text.
The word "causeth" appears in verses 12 and 16; in both instances it indicates a period of time rather than a precise moment of time, in which it would be virtually impossible to mark everyone on earth. This "causeth" explains how over a period of time the "Beast of the Earth" gets everyone to worship the Antichrist(willingly), and over a period of time gets everyone "marked", so that they can neither buy nor sell apart from their association with the Antichrist. Since Futurism "confines" this activity to the last 7 years(Dispensationalists claim the "elect" will be raptured, and therefore unaffected), it puts an extreme historical strain on society being in agreement and willingly yielding to a process which by the maximum can only last 7 years.
But what if the Antichrist "appears" earlier in time, and then the False Prophet makes his appearance also, with ample amount of time to "boil the frog"(ie: give society enough time to acquiesce the demands of the Beast and Antichrist). Life would be considered "normal" when it is every bit abnormal, but society is used to the transition, and doesn't oppose the gradual transition. This interpretation lies within the domains of Historicism, and in my view is the most accurate.
Translating the Symbolism
In order to correctly identify the "Beast of the Earth" we have to translate the Figurative language regarding it.
This "Beast" arises out of the earth, as opposed to the "sea", which we know is "peoples, multitudes, nations, tongues"(Rev. 17:15 KJV). Since the Context of the 1st Beast is Figurative, the Context of the 2nd Beast is also Figurative, meaning that this "Beast" doesn't literally arise out of the ground, but is associated with that which is empirical: or of the 5 Senses. It's "Dominion" comes this "empirical knowledge", or "earthly knowledge"which one may obtain by using their 5 senses(seeing, tasting, touching, feeling, smelling), in other words, measurable phenomenon, as opposed to "spiritual" phenomenon. It has 2 horns "like a lamb", meaning that it appears to be gentle and submissive in nature, yet "spoke as a dragon", which indicates his authority comes from Satan, and dare anyone resist or challenge it.
This Beast also works "miracles" in the sight of man, and "calling down fire from Heaven on the earth in the sight of man" is a direct reference to Elijah's "calling down fire from Heaven in the sight of men"(1 Kings 18:38, KJV),
Hear me, O LORD, hear me, that this people may know that thou art the
LORD God, and that thou hast turned their heart back again.
38 Then the fire of the LORD fell, and consumed the burnt sacrifice,
and the wood, and the stones, and the dust, and licked up the water
that was in the trench.
The "Fire from Heaven" is God's Apparent Approval, the "miracles" are seemingly only what God can do, and hold the people powerless in great amazement. Yet it is not in the "Power of God", but the "Power of Man" that these miracles are accomplished; therefore, he causes everyone NOT to worship him, but to worship the 1st Beast, the Antichrist, doing his "miracles" in the "Name" of the 1st Beast.
The 2nd Beast can rightly be called "Science", or "Science Falsely So Called". In 1 Tim. 6:20(KJV), it says,
O Timothy, keep that which is committed to thy trust, avoiding profane
and vain babblings, and oppositions of science falsely so called:
In the Interlinear Version it says, "ἀντιθέσεις τῆς ψευδωνύμου γνώσεως", which can be translated as "antithesis of falsely called knowledge". This "knowledge" led to discoveries in every arena of man, yet their outcome is not a "Greater Worship of God", but "A greater worship of man". The Scientific Community 'appears' beneficial towards the cause of man, but approves abortion, euthanasia, medical research using live human subjects, stem-cell and genetic experimentation with live babies. We've all witnessed manned space flight; Neal Armstrong's Famous Saying, "One small step for man, one giant step for mankind". These things are done with God's Apparent Approval-yet God is never invoked, or involved in the decision.
Science "creates" the Modern Technological Society which we live in today, and we are all "REQUIRED BY LAW" to submit to the academic standards and knowledge base that scientists have established. It is a requirement for schools to teach "Evolution", it is against the Law in many states to teach "Creation". This same "science" has taught "Racial Purity" in Nazi Germany, 'Proletariat of the People" in Russia, China, and numerous other nations, and "Progressiveism" here, to the point where parents can have their children physically removed from them, if it is found they didn't have certain vaccinations. The "Knowledge" Science receives is from the Tree of the Knowledge of Good and Evil; it may be beneficial, but in the end destructive, as only God knows what is truly good and evil.
The one who "causeth" is the 2nd Beast; the Beast of the Earth. Over Time he causeth all the Earth to worship the 1st Beast, the Antichrist. This 2nd Beast can rightly be called "Science", which takes the "miracles of Modern Man", making an 'image' called the "Modern Technological Society", and compelling all men to worship "Man as God", the Antichrist.