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Isaiah 45:24 and Romans 14:11 appear to use the same following phrase:

As surely as I live, says the Lord, every knee will bow before Me; every tongue will confess to God.

Since Isaiah 45:24 is in Hebrew (בַּיהוָ֛ה Yah·weh) and Romans 14:11 (κύριος kurios) is in Greek, naturally, the word for the 'Lord' differs. Noteably, the word 'kurios' appears derived from common pre-Christian social usage:

In Classical Athens, the word kyrios referred to the head of the household (oikos), who was responsible for his wife, children and any unmarried female relatives. Wikipedia

My question is, since the Old Testament gives the impression of being an ancient 'tribal religion' and since the New Testament gives the impression of being a more modern 'universal religion', is there any differences between the meanings of 'Yahweh' and 'Kurios'?

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One should question the assumption that the OT "LORD" is from the concepts of a "tribal" religion". There are plenty of examples that do not fit this simplistic assumption.

  • Ex 9:16 - But I have raised you up for this very purpose, that I might show you my power and that my name might be proclaimed in all the earth.
  • Josh 3:11 - See, the ark of the covenant of the Lord of all the earth will go into the Jordan ahead of you.
  • Josh 3:13 - And as soon as the priests who carry the ark of the LORD--the Lord of all the earth--set foot in the Jordan, its waters flowing downstream will be cut off
  • 1 Chron 16:23 - Sing to the LORD, all the earth; proclaim his salvation day after day.
  • Ps 8:9 - LORD, our Lord, how majestic is your name in all the earth!
  • Ps 22:27 - All the ends of the earth will remember and turn to the LORD; all the families of the nations will bow in submission to the LORD.
  • Ps 33:8 - Let all the earth fear the LORD; let all the people of the world revere him.
  • Ps 96:1 - Sing to the LORD a new song; sing to the LORD, all the earth.
  • Ps 96:9 - Worship the LORD in holy attire; Tremble before Him, all the earth.
  • Ps 97:5 - The mountains melt like wax before the LORD, before the Lord of all the earth.
  • Ps 97:9 - For thou art the most high Lord over all the earth: thou art exalted exceedingly above all gods.
  • Ps 98:4 - Shout for joy to the LORD, all the earth, burst into jubilant song with music;
  • Hab 2:20 - The LORD is in his holy temple; let all the earth be silent before him.
  • Micah 4:13 - You will devote their ill-gotten gains to the LORD, their wealth to the Lord of all the earth.
  • Zech 4:14 - So he said, "These are the two who are anointed to serve the Lord of all the earth."
  • Zech 6:5 - The angel replied, "These are the four spirits of heaven who stand before the Lord of all the earth.

Here are further examples:

  • Dan 2:47 - The king said to Daniel, "Your God is indeed God of gods, Lord of kings, and a revealer of mysteries, since you were able to reveal this mystery."
  • Deut 10:17 - For the LORD your God is God of gods and Lord of lords, the great God, mighty and awesome,
  • Ps 136:3 - Give thanks to the Lord of lords: His love endures forever.
  • Ps 136:26 - Give glory to the Lord of lords: for his mercy endures for ever.
  • etc.

The Hebrews were in no doubt that their God, Almighty Lord Jehovah, was God of heaven and earth, all the earth, and was God of gods, and Lord of Lords. That is, YHWH was always believed to be the one and only, universal and supreme God of the universe.

As a further note, we have hundreds places where the tetragrammaton, YHWH is translated by "kurios" in the Greek of the LXX and the NT. Here are a few cases from the NT: Ps 45:6, 7 vs, Heb 1:8, 9; Ps 102:25 - 27, vs, Heb 1:10 - 12; Ps 22:22, vs, Heb 2:12; Isa 8:17, vs, Heb 2:13.

Thus, the NT Greek Kurios (= "Lord") is equivalent to YHWH in the OT.

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