I guess it would depend what you mean by successful? Complete the physical tower, then yes they would have been successful.
“And the Lord said... and this they begin to do: and now nothing will be restrained from them, which they have imagined to do.”
Genesis 11:6 KJV
If you mean utilize the tower, make a name for themselves and dethrone G-d? Dethrone as in defy His rulerships over them, implied by establishing another name in the region of heaven reserved for G-d. In a sense seeking equality with G-d
“And they said, Go to, let us build us a city and a tower, whose top may reach unto heaven; and let us make us a name...”
Genesis 11:4 KJV
Then, no, they clearly would not have succeeded because G-d is above the heavens and certainly in their thinking He was above the impenetrable firmament. But it was a symbolic gesture to say, we don’t need You. We too can be in heavenly places and we will live ungoverned by You.
“The Lord is high above all nations, and his glory above the heavens.”
Psalms 113:4 KJV
G-d understood their intentions, which was to shake the yoke of a deity ruling humans. By making a place to reach heaven it would be seen as an affront to G-d. So He saves them the effort and releases them from His governing power, allowing them some level of independence of Him. However He being G-d decides how this would look like.
He split them up
“When the Most High gave to the nations their inheritance, when he divided mankind, he fixed the borders of the peoples according to the number of the sons of G-d.”
Deuteronomy 32:8 ESV
The split or scattering also came with a new language
“Therefore is the name of it called Babel; because the Lord did there confound the language of all the earth: and from thence did the Lord scatter them abroad upon the face of all the earth.”
Genesis 11:9 KJV
And now if we put both verses together each language/nation had their own elohim to represent them before G-d. The idea of the elohim representing the nations is seen throughout Scripture. Especially in Psalm 82:
“G-d standeth in the congregation of the mighty; he judgeth among the gods. How long will ye judge unjustly, and accept the persons of the wicked? Selah.”
Psalms 82:1-2 KJV
G-d judges the gods who in turn judge the humans
Unfortunately the elohim corrupted themselves Psalm 82 and become the gods of the nations
“For I will pass through the land of Egypt this night, and will smite all the firstborn in the land of Egypt, both man and beast; and against all the gods of Egypt I will execute judgment: I am the Lord.”
Exodus 12:12 KJV
And G-d made His own nation from Abraham starting from scratch through which He planned to regain all the nations back.
“The Lord did not set his love upon you, nor choose you, because ye were more in number than any people; for ye were the fewest of all people:”
Deuteronomy 7:7 KJV
And tie that in with
“For the Lord's portion is his people; Jacob is the lot of his inheritance.”
Deuteronomy 32:9 KJV
The connection there being that in Genesis 11 the nations are divided but Abram (father of Israel) , doesn’t come on the scene until chapter 12, so clearly they were the fewest, the nations had a head start. G-d started from scratch a nation through Abraham.
Had G-d not confused their languages and they had built the tower, they would have had the illusion that they could reject G-d’s governance over them. G-d thwarted that wrong perception
This was led by a one world leader
“And Cush begat Nimrod: he began to be a mighty one in the earth. He was a mighty (gibbor) hunter before the Lord: wherefore it is said, Even as Nimrod the mighty hunter before the Lord. And the beginning of his kingdom was Babel...”
Genesis 10:8-10 KJV
This tells me they wanted a human to govern over them and not G-d because this gibbor established himself over the people and proposed independence from G-d by means of a tower to heaven. To which they all agreed.
Notes why sons of G-d, as opposed to sons of Israel
I personally don’t ascribe to how the MT reads, “sons of Israel” because Israel didn’t even exist and Abraham was not even called yet. It’s not logical to divide something according to thatb which doesn’t yet exist. Plus the DSS and the LXX both agree sons/angels of G-d. That’s two witnesses against one.