It would help to understand how the word glorified is being used.
Glory is essentially something that someone or something is most well known for. If I mention a famous person’s name, even if they did other things in their life, you will immediately think of the one thing that they are most renowned for.
- George Washington - first president of the USA
- Michael Jordan - world famous basketball player
And so on.
In saying these words
“And Jesus answered them, “The hour has come for the Son of Man to be glorified.”
Jesus is saying the time has come for the son of man to become renowned/“famous”/glorified
“When Jesus had spoken these words, he lifted up his eyes to heaven, and said, “Father, the hour has come; glorify your Son that the Son may glorify you,”
But notice Jesus had in mind a specific glory, not just any glory.
“I glorified you on earth, having accomplished the work that you gave me to do.”
Jesus had made known the Father to men, that He is God and now Jesus is asking that the Father make known the Son with the glory He had BEFORE Creation.
“AND NOW, Father, glorify me in your own presence with the glory that I had with you before the world existed.”
In return Jesus is asking the Father to let Him have the glory He possessed before Creation. And it’s specifically in The Father’s presence, it’s what He was renown for from before Creation. (And we can infer that nothing existed outside Creation, for ALL things were made through Him and for Him, meaning not even heaven existed, much less heavenly hosts, only God existed).
Jesus was asking to be known as God like He had been prior to creation. This would explain why Jesus while incarnate NEVER pointed to Himself as God, even though He was God, no, rather He glorified, or made known the Father. The Apostles however no longer make this distinction. Where Jesus used monos in John 5:44, 17:3 from then on God is referred to by the rest of the NT authors as hen which is intended to include Jesus as God. If monos were used then Jesus could not be included. It speaks to the humility of Jesus, refusing to grasp equality with God while learning obedience as a human, a servant human
“who, though he was in the form of God, did not count equality with God a thing to be grasped,”
The hour, reference you inquire about is the same as saying in modern English the time has come. How did He know? From the scrolls and also He prayed a lot, so He received revelation too.
Why did the hour come? Because Jesus had made the Father known as God. Now it was time for the Father to make the Son known as God.