While a comprehensive understanding of the symbolism of the Revelation is elusive it is possible to see the reference to the mark placed on the hand and forehead as symbolizing the tokens testifying to commitment to Mosaic covenant:
[Deu 11:18 ESV] (18) "You shall therefore lay up these words of mine in your heart and in your soul, and you shall bind them as a sign on your hand, and they shall be as frontlets between your eyes.
The history is obscure but it seems possible that the wearing of phylacteries became enforceable and the failure to wear them the basis for persecution (or at least a practical means to avoid persecution). This would allow one to "fit in" without having to flash one's circumcision. Notice that Paul indicates that one might avoid persecution by demonstrating commitment to Torah:
[Gal 6:12-13 ESV] (12) It is those who want to make a good showing in the flesh who would force you to be circumcised, and only in order that they may not be persecuted for the cross of Christ. (13) For even those who are circumcised do not themselves keep the law, but they desire to have you circumcised that they may boast in your flesh.
This would be in contrast to the writing of Torah upon the heart in the new covenant.
[Rom 2:23-29 ESV] (23) You who boast in the law dishonor God by breaking the law. (24) For, as it is written, "The name of God is blasphemed among the Gentiles because of you." (25) For circumcision indeed is of value if you obey the law, but if you break the law, your circumcision becomes uncircumcision. (26) So, if a man who is uncircumcised keeps the precepts of the law, will not his uncircumcision be regarded as circumcision? (27) Then he who is physically uncircumcised but keeps the law will condemn you who have the written code and circumcision but break the law. (28) For no one is a Jew who is merely one outwardly, nor is circumcision outward and physical. (29) But a Jew is one inwardly, and circumcision is a matter of the heart, by the Spirit, not by the letter. His praise is not from man but from God.
In the first century there was a confluence of religious and political imperatives with both secular and religious enforcement that made the failure to be circumcised (becoming accountable to the Sinai covenant) and conformity to Jewish rules (scriptural or not) to be punishable offences.
Please see this related question and this one.