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1 Corinthians 10:16:

KJV The cup of blessing which we bless, is it not the communion of the blood of Christ? The bread which we break, is it not the communion of the body of Christ?

MGNT τὸ ποτήριον τῆς εὐλογίας ὃ εὐλογοῦμεν οὐχὶ κοινωνία ἐστὶν τοῦ αἵματος τοῦ Χριστοῦ τὸν ἄρτον ὃν κλῶμεν οὐχὶ κοινωνία τοῦ σώματος τοῦ Χριστοῦ ἐστιν

Is the reference to "the cup of blessing" referring to the third cup of the seder, which speaks of the redemption of the Jews from Egypt?

There is a tradition that the [son of] David would pronounce the blessing over the wine of the great eschatological feast in the kingdom of God:

...Death did not put an end to David's greatness and splendor, for he was also among the elect in paradise (Jellinek, "B. H." v. 168; vi. 25, 26), and on the Day of Judgment he will pronounce the blessing over the wine during the great feast (Pes. 119b; compare Cup of Benediction)...

But Jesus is still in negotiations about his drinking the cup (though he actually knows it will not pass unless he drinks it, so he is really "learning [the cost of] obedience"):

NIV Luke 22:

39Jesus went out as usual to the Mount of Olives, and his disciples followed him. 40On reaching the place, he said to them, “Pray that you will not fall into temptation.” 41He withdrew about a stone’s throw beyond them, knelt down and prayed, 42“Father, if you are willing, take this cup from me; yet not my will, but yours be done.” 43An angel from heaven appeared to him and strengthened him. 44And being in anguish, he prayed more earnestly, and his sweat was like drops of blood falling to the ground.

So is he saying that he won't drink the cup of blessing until after his ordeal?

I notice it is an angel who blesses those who attend the wedding feast, not the messiah.

Now, Luke and John seem to disagree on the timing of the killing of the Passover lamb but for Luke, obviously the meal was a Passover meal:

NIV Luke 22:

7Then came the day of Unleavened Bread on which the Passover lamb had to be sacrificed. 8Jesus sent Peter and John, saying, “Go and make preparations for us to eat the Passover.”

9“Where do you want us to prepare for it?” they asked.

10He replied, “As you enter the city, a man carrying a jar of water will meet you. Follow him to the house that he enters, 11and say to the owner of the house, ‘The Teacher asks: Where is the guest room, where I may eat the Passover with my disciples?’ 12He will show you a large room upstairs, all furnished. Make preparations there.”

13They left and found things just as Jesus had told them. So they prepared the Passover.

14When the hour came, Jesus and his apostles reclined at the table. 15And he said to them, “I have eagerly desired to eat this Passover with you before I suffer. 16For I tell you, I will not eat it again until it finds fulfillment in the kingdom of God.”

17After taking the cup, he gave thanks and said, “Take this and divide it among you. 18For I tell you I will not drink again from the fruit of the vine until the kingdom of God comes.”

19And he took bread, gave thanks and broke it, and gave it to them, saying, “This is my body given for you; do this in remembrance of me.”

20In the same way, after the supper he took the cup, saying, “This cup is the new covenant in my blood, which is poured out for you. a 21But the hand of him who is going to betray me is with mine on the table. 22The Son of Man will go as it has been decreed. But woe to that man who betrays him!” 23They began to question among themselves which of them it might be who would do this.

So is it reasonable that "the cup of blessing" is part of the seder and not some new tradition that he started?

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    Your question conflates Wedding Feast (which is clearly Heaven) (and at that, a passive statement about blessedness vs. blessing vs. wine), the Passover meal (Jewish people only), the Eucharist (Jew and Gentile). Also, didn't you say before that you thought chapter 10 was some sort of Catholic edition or something along those lines, and that it's not original/Paul's? " and not some new tradition that he started" glibly ignores that we know it wasn't the Passover. The Eucharist has never been identical to the Passover except in that Christ is the Paschal Lamb of the New Testament equivalent. – Sola Gratia Oct 17 '18 at 13:33
  • I consider chapter 10 clearly original. I expressed some entertainment of the idea that parts of chapter 14 and 16 might not be original with 16 possibly containing some Catholic contamination. How do we know it was not the Passover??? I mean, John wouldn't say so but the synoptics? Luke? Clear as a bell in Luke 22:7ff, as I quoted. I mentioned the "great feast" which is NOT blessed directly by the Messiah in Revelation to kind of rule that out as the fulfillment. – Ruminator Oct 17 '18 at 13:45
  • The source you provide says: "Speaking generally, the cup of benediction is drunk only on Sabbaths or at festivals and other joyous occasions." If there is a correspondence with the cup, can it be limited to just the Seder? OTOH a regular Sabbath or joyous occasion sounds like Christian Communion. – Revelation Lad Oct 17 '18 at 13:52
  • How can you deny that Luke is describing a seder?: NIV Luke 22: 7Then came the day of Unleavened Bread on which the Passover lamb had to be sacrificed. 8Jesus sent Peter and John, saying, “Go and make preparations for us to eat the Passover.” ...11and say to the owner of the house, ‘The Teacher asks: Where is the guest room, where I may eat the Passover with my disciples?’ 12He will show you a large room upstairs, all furnished. Make preparations there.” 13They left and found things just as Jesus had told them. So they prepared the Passover. – Ruminator Oct 17 '18 at 13:56
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    "It seems interpreting Paul with no reference to the other scriptures is an impossible task." If 1 Cor is "scripture" why are you lording over it as if you can decide what are 'Catholic additions' with zero evidence but an apparent aversion to the doctrine itself? Again, in Revelation, no one blesses anything, and a Feast is not automatically a Passover meal—especially when it says "Wedding Feast." Makarios used in Revelation just means blessed in the 'happy; blessed' sense. Not the 'holy' or 'ritual' kind of benediction or blessing of the bread and the cup: Paul uses eulogeo: 'to bless.' – Sola Gratia Oct 17 '18 at 21:45
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In 1 Corinthians 10:16 does Paul's mention of the “cup of blessing” suggest that the meal was a seder?

The answer is no, it refers to the new covenant Jesus made with his disciples: "This cup is the new covenant in my blood, even that which is poured out for you." (Luke 22: 20 NASB)

Festival of Passover or Seder was instituted to commemorate the deliverance of Israel from captivity in Egypt (1513 B.C.E.). It is held on Nisan 14 of the Jewish calendar (This is observed on the first full moon after the Vernal equinox in March)

After celebrating the Passover with his disciples, Jesus announced the new covenant (Vs 20) for a kingdom, validated by his sacrifice.

The Last Supper

(Psalm 41:1-13; Matthew 26:17-25; Mark 14:12-21; John 13:18-30 Luke 22:10-13)

Luke 22:10-13 (NASB)

10 And He said to them, “When you have entered the city, a man will meet you carrying a pitcher of water; follow him into the house that he enters. 11 And you shall say to the owner of the house, ‘The Teacher says to you, “Where is the guest room in which I may eat the Passover with My disciples?”’ 12 And he will show you a large, furnished upper room; prepare it there.” 13 And they left and found everything just as He had told them, and they prepared the Passover.

The Lord’s Supper Instituted.

(Matthew 26:26-30; Mark 14:22-23, 28-29 ; 1 Corinthians 11:17-34 Luke 22:14-20 )

Luke 22: 14-20, 28-30 (NASB)

14 "When the hour had come, He reclined at the table, and the apostles with Him. 15 And He said to them, “I have earnestly desired to eat this Passover with you before I suffer; 16 for I say to you, I shall never again eat it until it is fulfilled in the kingdom of God.” 17 And when He had taken a cup and given thanks, He said, “Take this and share it among yourselves; 18 for I say to you, I will not drink of the fruit of the vine from now on until the kingdom of God comes.” 19 And when He had taken some bread and given thanks, He broke it and gave it to them, saying, “This is My body which is given for you; do this in remembrance of Me.” 20 And in the same way He took the cup after they had eaten, saying, “This cup which is poured out for you is the new covenant in My blood.

28 “You are those who have stood by Me in My trials; 29 and just as My Father has granted Me a kingdom, I grant you 30 that you may eat and drink at My table in My kingdom, and you will sit on thrones judging the twelve tribes of Israel."

Through their faith in the redeeming power of Christ’s blood, their sins are forgiven and they are declared righteous for life in heaven. (Romans 5:8, 9; Titus 3:4-7)

1 Corinthians 10:16 (KJV)

The cup of blessing which we bless, is it not the communion of the blood of Christ? The bread which we break, is it not the communion of the body of Christ?

The cup of blessing which we bless", refers to the " chosen race, a royal priesthood a people of his own."1 Peter 2:9 reads;

1 Peter 2:9 (NET)

But you are a chosen race, a royal priesthood, a holy nation, a people of his own, so that you may proclaim the virtues of the one who called you out of darkness into his marvelous light.

Where would the royal priesthood serve?

After their death and resurrection, they would serve with Christ in heaven as both kings and priests:

Luke 22:29-30 (NASB) The word "Spiritual" entered in verse by me

29 "And just as My Father has granted Me a kingdom, I grant you 30 that you may eat and drink at My table in My kingdom, and you will sit on thrones judging the twelve [Spiritual] tribes of Israel."

God caused them to be born again for an inheritance in heaven, not chosen by man.

Romans 8:16-17 NASB

" The Spirit Himself testifies with our spirit that we are children of God, 17 and if children, heirs also, heirs of God and fellow heirs with Christ if indeed we suffer with Him so that we may also be glorified with Him."

1 Peter 1:3-5 (NASB)

3 Blessed be the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, who according to His great mercy has caused us to be born again to a living hope through the resurrection of Jesus Christ from the dead, 4 to obtain an inheritance which is imperishable and undefiled and will not fade away, reserved in heaven for you, 5 who are protected by the power of God through faith for a salvation ready to be revealed in the last time.

Appointed by Jesus to serve God as priests.

Revelation 1:6 (NET Bible)

6 "And has appointed us as a kingdom, as priests serving his God and Father—to him be the glory and the power forever and ever! Amen.

Confirming this the apostle John in his vision saw four living creatures near the throne of God singing a new song addressed to the Lamb. (Rev. 5: 9-10)

Revelation 5:8-10 (NASB)

8 "When He had taken the [h]book, the four living creatures and the twenty-four elders fell down before the Lamb, each one holding a harp and golden bowls full of incense, which are the prayers of the [i]saints. 9 And they *sang a new song, saying, “Worthy are You to take the [j]book and to break its seals; for You were slain, and purchased for God with Your blood men from every tribe and tongue and people and nation. 10 “You have made them to be a kingdom and priests to our God, and they will reign upon the earth.”

Those privileged to sing the song are only 144,000 and refers to individuals men/women chosen by God to rule with Christ in heaven over the earth.

Rev. 14:3 ,Rev.5:9-10

Revelation 14:3 NASB

"And they sang a new song before the throne and before the four living creatures and the elders; and no one could learn the song except the one hundred and forty-four thousand who had been purchased from the earth.

" And I heard the number of those who were sealed, one hundred and forty-four thousand sealed from every tribe of the sons of Israel: (Rev 7:4.) "Those who were sealed", refers to individuals chosen by God to rule with Christ in heaven over the earth.

Revelation 5:9-10 (NASB)

9 "And they *sang a new song, saying, “Worthy are You to take the [a]book and to break its seals; for You were slain and purchased for God with Your blood men from every tribe and tongue and people and nation. 10 “You have made them to be a kingdom and priests to our God and they will reign upon the earth.”

The length God's Kingdom rule by Jesus Christ and his 144,000 was foretold to be a thousand years. (Rev 20:4-6)

Revelation 20:4-6 (NASB)

4 "Then I saw thrones, and they sat on them, and judgment was given to them. And I saw the souls of those who had been beheaded because of [a]their testimony of Jesus and because of the word of God, and those who had not worshiped the beast or his image, and had not received the mark on their forehead and on their hand; and they came to life and reigned with Christ for a thousand years. 5 The rest of the dead did not come to life until the thousand years were completed. This is the first resurrection. 6 Blessed and holy is the one who has a part in the first resurrection; over these the second death has no power, but they will be priests of God and of Christ and will reign with Him for a thousand years."

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