'Place' in Hebrews 12:17 is τοπος, topos, as in Acts 1:25.
... apostleship from which, transgressing, Judas fell to go to his own place.
[Interlinear Literal from the Englishman's Greek New Testament (Bagster)].
Judas traded his position for thirty of silver after which the position was no longer his and was available for another, as prophesied in Psalm 109:8 and as referred to by Peter :
... his bishopric let another take (Acts 1:20)[KJV]
Thus also did Esau. The place referred to is the place which Esau had already relinquished, before the incident with Isaac. I do not think that Isaac is involved in this at all.
The deal was already done, long before.
Esau traded his place for a bowl of soup. And he did so without a thought, without a care, without a blush - because he cared nothing for the birthright.
He regarded it as less than the worth of a single meal.
Just as Herod regarded the head of John the Baptist as less than the value of half his kingdom. All Herod need do, in front of his courtiers and his wife, is tell them that Salome has asked for something outside of the bargain estimate.
It is all a matter of valuations.
Jacob wanted the blessing. And, years later, when he met Esau again, Esau had got over his brief tears, had settled for what he really wanted and to the man who had just spent the entire night in prayer, wrestling for a blessing :
I will not let thee go unless thou bless me [Genesis 32:26]
Esau gave the response :
I have enough, my brother [Genesis 34:9]
Happy, now, Esau is content. But Jacob still wrestles on.
In the end, they both got what they really wanted. Esau took to wife a woman of the Hittites which was a grief of mind to Isaac and Rebekah. Esau revealed by his choice that he despised his birthright because he despised his parents and despised what Abraham and Isaac lived for.
He wept because he lost outward, natural blessings. But for the spiritual things after which his fathers yearned, he cared nothing. When push came to shove and when he felt just a stirring of hunger, he would trade what he did not value for a momentary gratification.
What he traded was his position.
And having traded it, he no longer possessed that place.
It now belonged to someone else.
Because repentance is not one, solitary act. Repentance (μετανοια,metanoia) is a matter of the mind (νοια, noia). It is a lifelong habitation. One dwells there, in the place of repentance, never moving,
Once relinquished, it can never be recovered.
The place has disappeared. It no longer exists.
So he can cry all he likes. He can seek it as thoroughly as he can. But it no longer exists, what he seeks. It has disappeared, forever.
Afterward - he was rejected.
The gift of repentance is priceless. And this gift has been made available to the Gentiles, now, not just Israel :
Then hath God also to the Gentiles granted repentance unto life. [Acts 11:18 (KJV)]
But those who lightly esteem this gift and who think it can be traded (backwards and forwards) now possessing it, now casting it aside (for a while) that profanity may be indulged, will discover - to their horror - that God is not mocked.
Cast it away - trade it for a moment - and it is gone forever.
So discovered Esau, weeping.
So discovered Judas, hanging.
Wherefore, let us have grace, whereby we may serve God acceptably with reverence and godly fear :
For our God is a consuming fire.
Hebrews 12:28, 29 [KJV].