“By one man’s disobedience many were made sinners” (Rom. 5:19).
Why does not say "all" but "many"?
Biblical Hermeneutics Stack Exchange is a question and answer site for professors, theologians, and those interested in exegetical analysis of biblical texts. It only takes a minute to sign up.Sign up to join this community
Actually, both words are used in Romans 5, ie both “many” and “all”.
The word “many” is used in Romans 5 to convey the concept of going from “one” to “many”. The idea being that through the sin of one man, sin passed to many and by the obedience of one man righteousness passed to many.
Compare the “one” and “many” in these verses.
15 But not as the offence, so also is the free gift. For if through the offence of one many be dead, much more the grace of God, and the gift by grace, which is by one man, Jesus Christ, hath abounded unto many.
...17 For if by one man's offence death reigned by one; much more they which receive abundance of grace and of the gift of righteousness shall reign in life by one, Jesus Christ.)
...19 For as by one man's disobedience many were made sinners, so by the obedience of one shall many be made righteous.
Paul is using idiomatic or colloquial language, so the use of “many” here coveys the concept of something being passed from one to many. There is no contradiction or difficulty here for remember, Paul also wrote “For as in Adam all die, even so in Christ shall all be made alive.”(1 Corinthians 15:22).
Paul brings that same concept here to Romans 5. Compare verse 12 and 18.
12 Wherefore, as by one man sin entered into the world, and death by sin; and so death passed upon all men, for that all have sinned:
18 Therefore as by the offence of one judgment came upon all men to condemnation; even so by the righteousness of one the free gift came upon all men unto justification of life.
So we see here that we have agreement, ie sin passed from “one” to “all” and righteousness also passed from “one” to “all” which by implication is "many".
Enoch would not have been included in Paul's "many". See Genesis 5:24. Sirach 49:14. Hebrews 11:5. We also have the pre-Christian first book of Enoch testifying that "Enoch, [was] a righteous man, who was with God" (1:1) This book was quoted in Jude. For more on this see Schurer, "The Literature of the Jewish People in the time of Jesus." There is also the second book of Enoch which could be dated from the end of the first century.