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I take the questions beginning with "Do ye not know" and "Know ye not" to be rhetorical with the meaning "Of course you know that you shall judge the world and angels":

1Co 6:2  Do ye not know that the saints shall judge the world? and if the world shall be judged by you, are ye unworthy to judge the smallest matters?  1Co 6:3  Know ye not that we shall judge angels? how much more things that pertain to this life?

Why might he expect them (or us) to understand that? How is that so obviously the case?

I have read commentary suggesting that it is spoken of here:

Mat 19:27  Then answered Peter and said unto him, Behold, we have forsaken all, and followed thee; what shall we have therefore?  Mat 19:28  And Jesus said unto them, Verily I say unto you, That ye which have followed me, in the regeneration when the Son of man shall sit in the throne of his glory, ye also shall sit upon twelve thrones, judging the twelve tribes of Israel.

However, I see only 12 seats mentioned and only in reference to Israel.

What makes Paul see the saints judging the world and angels as an obvious matter?

KJV unless otherwise noted.

See related: In Daniel 7:22 is judgment "committed to" the saints or "rendered in favor of" them?

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    Read Daniel chapter 7 -- "I beheld, and the same horn made war with the saints, and prevailed against them; Until the Ancient of days came, and judgment was given to the saints of the most High; and the time came that the saints possessed the kingdom." (KJV: Daniel 21-22) – enegue May 22 '18 at 14:29
  • @enegue Please see this post I just posted: hermeneutics.stackexchange.com/questions/33166/… – Ruminator May 22 '18 at 15:55
  • Both Matthew and Luke record that Jesus said that those of the resurrection will be "as"/"equal to" the angels, being eternal, and as such making marriage (procreation) redundant. In Revelation 22:8-9, John falls in worship at the feet of an angel who tells him not to do so, for he is his "fellow servant" (John being "in the spirit", i.e. in an angelic form). This moves me towards the idea that all citizens in the resurrection are angelic and those from earth who attain the resurrection will be angels governing angels. – enegue May 24 '18 at 0:47
  • @enegue That will be a harder sell! – Ruminator May 24 '18 at 0:53
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The following links have Orthodox interpretation by many Holy Fathers and modern theologians of 1 Cor 6:2 and 6:3 (Only in Russian). Most authors say that the term "angels" here is for demons because they are former angels by nature. Two authors (St. Ephraim of Syria and Severian of Gabala) note that this term also include priests - the teachers of people and this is contradicted by St. John Chrysostom. Prof. Lopukhin note that from apocryphal book of Enoch, Jews had the knowledge that God will judge demons. Also Ph. Bachmann thinks that "angels" are angels in general due to their responsibility for they are guardians of the countries and nations.

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Enegue posted an excellent answer on another question which I believe does double duty as an answer to this question. First he pointed out that Daniel 7:22 KJV says that judgment is given to the saints:

Dan 7:22  Until the Ancient of days came, and judgment was given to the saints of the most High; and the time came that the saints possessed the kingdom.

It turned out that there is some ambiguity in the text as to whether it was a "favorable" judgment that was given or the role of judge. I raised that concern and again Enegue pointed out that given the context either way you understand the "judgment" being "given" it still grants them the power to judge:

...Regardless of how one interprets verse 22, verse 27 makes it abundantly clear the saints are given dominion of the kingdom: "And the kingdom and dominion, and the greatness of the kingdom under the whole heaven, shall be given to the people of the saints of the most High". Dominion, of course, means they get to call the shots, i.e. exercise judgment. – enegue May 23 at 22:36

I suggested that he post it as an answer but declined so I've "plagiarized" his insight here:

Any ambiguity that may be present in Daniel 7:22, can be resolved by considering this: the judgment of the LORD "rendered in favor of" the saints, is that judgment "be committed" to the saints.

This is precisely what Daniel says at the conclusion to the chapter.

26But the judgment shall sit, and they shall take away his dominion, to consume and to destroy it unto the end. 27And the kingdom and dominion, and the greatness of the kingdom under the whole heaven, shall be given to the people of the saints of the most High, whose kingdom is an everlasting kingdom, and all dominions shall serve and obey him.
-- Daniel 7:26-27 (KJV)

"the judgment shall sit", i.e. that dominion be taken from the horn who made war with the saints, and be given to the saints. Dominion (שָׁלְטָן Strong's H7985 - sholtan (Aramaic)) concerns sovereignty -- the responsibility of government, which means judgment of "the kingdom under the whole heaven" will be committed to the saints.https://hermeneutics.stackexchange.com/questions/33166/in-daniel-722-is-judgment-committed-to-the-saints-or-rendered-in-favor-of-t/33184?s=1|132.9346#33184

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