As you have seen in other answers, the term here is אך, 'ak, and it has multiple different meanings. The Akkadian 'akkē means "surely, hence" and this is also the most common meaning in Hebrew. From this, the restrictive meaning "only" develops. A good example of this development is Ps 62:2, אַךְ־הוּא צוּרִי "yes, he is my rock" → "he alone is my rock".
In cases like this, where there is a clear predominant and more original meaning, it is always best to work with that meaning first, and only move on to other meanings if it really doesn't work out. This is a common cognitive linguistic method: if there are truly distinct meanings, a (native) listener/reader will automatically first attempt the most basic meaning. Hence to use another meaning there must be some concrete element in the sentence that would trigger the native recipient to use the non-basic meaning.
Long story short, אך as "indeed, surely", which is the common meaning in Hebrew (which has already developed slightly compared to the Akkadian cognate), gives a fine translation here and must be preferred.
And I, I said, "I have been driven away from before your eyes,
[Indeed →] Yea, will I again look to your holy temple [ever]?"
Perhaps most importantly, this reading is supported by an old Greek translation by Theodotion, who translated πῶς "how, how possibly". This leads some to suggest an amendation on the Hebrew to איך, a similar interrogative. While it is tempting, there are no manuscripts supporting it and the text as it stands does not give major problems.
Especially in poetry, the imperfect that אֹוסִיף "will I again" is can carry certain modal nuances which facilitate interrogative readings. If you are interested, see Gianto, 1998, 'Mood and Modality in Classical Hebrew', Israel Oriental Studies 18, 183–198. Other examples of this use that come to mind are in Job, for instance 39:2, תִּסְפֹּר יְרָחִים תְּמַלֶּאנָה "can you count the months they [some kind of young animal] will fulfill" (i.e., "can you know how old they will become"). The "will fulfill" and "can you" are both imperfects, but they must be read differently. "Will you count .." does not make sense in context, and for "they can fulfill" you would expect the modal verb יכל "to be able". Thus, the absence of an interrogative particle like ה־ is not a problem, especially considering that this is poetry.
This reading, in my opinion, also fits best in the context. Jonah, both before and after this verse, is deeply desperate; a sudden expression of hope is unlikely. A reference to Chronicles is even more unlikely, because Chronicles was composed centuries after Jonah. At best, the two share a common source.