The Levites were granted inheritance among the children of Israel so Elkanah, the father of Samuel, could be both a Levite (by birth) and an Ephraimite (by location of neighbourhood).
However Robert Young, in his Analytical Concordance, lists 8 different Elkanahs in scripture and appears to treat the Levite as other than Samuel's father due to a gap of 320 years between the two.
He lists four different Elkanahs in I Chronicles 6 but adds a question mark on the fourth and questions whether it is the same as the third :
A grandson of Korah, grandson of Kohath (1490 BC)
I Chron 6:23 Elkanah his son and Ebiasaph his son
Father of the prophet Samuel and a descendant of the above (1171 BC)
I Chron 6:27 Eliab his son, Jeroham his son, Elkanah his son
I Chron 6:34 The son of Elkanah, the son of Jeroham
NOTE : Robert Young accepts this is the same Elkanah as is mentioned throughout I Samuel chapters 1 & 2. That is, the father of Samuel.
A descendant of Levi, through Kohath (1490 BC)
I Chron 6:25 The sons of Elkanah : Amasai and Ahimoth
I Chron 6:36 The son of Elkanah, the son of Joel
Robert Young clearly accepts this as another Elkanah and not the father of Samuel. Presumably on the basis of the 320 year difference.
A descendant of Kohath (? same as above ?)
I Chron 6:26 Elkanah : the sons of Elkanah Zophai ...
I Chron 6:35 The son of Zuph, the son of Elkanah