And when he was alone, they that were about him with the twelve asked of him the parable.
καταμόνας contains the feminine plural of μόνος (meaning 'alone') together with the prefix κατα. But the KJV translation merely says 'alone' for the compound word and thus conveys nothing for the prefix.
I am wondering what emphasis the prefix lends to the meaning.
κατα, as a preposition, is sometimes given meanings other than 'downward' - such as 'according to' (a translation occurring several times in the KJV).
But my own edition of Liddell & Scott (the thousand-page American edition of 1856, which is not duplicated online so I cannot link) has two pages on κατα but makes it clear that in antiquity only two meanings are relevant, namely
- an influence from above
which meanings are not identical but subtly different.
Similar questions arise from other places such as 'Jesus was left alone and the woman in the midst,' John 8:9, and 'Jesus was alone praying and his disciples were with him, Luke 9:18.
Thus also, here, 'he was alone' yet 'they that were about him ...'.
What is the emphasis of the compound word καταμόνας ?
How does this meaning explain the (translated) anomaly of 'alone/with' ?