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In Jeremiah - Who is the "Queen of Heaven"? Is this a reference to a god in chaldea or somewhere else?

NKJV, Jeremiah 44:25 - Thus says the Lord of hosts, the God of Israel, saying: ‘You and your wives have spoken with your mouths and fulfilled with your hands, saying, “We will surely keep our vows that we have made, to burn incense to the queen | לִמְלֶ֣כֶת of heaven and pour out drink offerings to her.” You will surely keep your vows and perform your vows!’

Why is their inconsistency - even in the book of Jeremiah?

2 Chronicles 9:12 - לְמַֽלְכַּת

Esther 1:9 - הַמַּלְכָּ֔ה

Song of Solomon 6:8 - Queens | מְּלָכ֔וֹת

Isaiah 49:23 - Queens (Princesses?) | וְשָׂרֽוֹתֵיהֶם֙

Jeremiah 13:18 - וְלַגְּבִירָ֖ה - Noble Woman or Queen?

Daniel 5:10 - Queen | מַלְכְּתָ֕א

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This "queen of heaven" is unlikely to be Babylonian goddess, since the story takes place in Egypt, and the worshipers came directly from Judea. The people are a little more specific on who she is when they say

But we will certainly do whatever has gone out of our own mouth, to burn incense to the queen of heaven and pour out drink offerings to her, as we have done, we and our fathers, our kings and our princes, in the cities of Judah and in the streets of Jerusalem (44:17 NKJV)

Apparently, this goddess was known to them in Judah and Jerusalem. So she was probably a Canaanite god, or possibly from neighboring nations such as Sidon and Moab who were sometimes worshipped in Judah (II Kings 23:13). According to Wikipedia, some scholars identify her as Asherah, Anath, or Ashtoreth, but I'm not aware of any compelling evidence for a specific identification.


The Masorah vowelizes מְלֶכֶת as if it were the word מְלֶאכֶת (the construct state of מְלָאכָה), meaning "the work of heaven," not "the queen of heaven." The Masorah seems to interpret the verse to mean that they were worshiping the heavens by doing "the work of heaven" (apparently whatever work it took to offer incense), but not worshiping a particular goddess. (This is also clearly the reading of the Peshitta: ܠܦܘܠܚܢ ܫܡܝܐ. As user33515 notes, the Septuagint reads "queen," as in the NKJV rendering.) The ordinary vowelization for "queen" in the construct state is, as in the verse from Chronicles you mentioned, מַלְכַּת.

The words הַמַּלְכָּה and מְלָכוֹת are the undeclined singular and plural forms for "queen." מַלְכְּתָא is Aramaic. וְשָׂרֽוֹתֵיהֶם from Isaiah and וְלַגְּבִירָה from Jeremiah are synonyms for, or at least overlap with the meaning of "queen" - they're simply different lexical items.

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    The Septuagint translators seem to have read "queen" – user33515 Nov 20 '17 at 21:14

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