Yes, this text almost certainly draws on Exodus 3:14. While the reference is unique within the Book of Wisdom, it is not unique among contemporary Greek Jewish literature. To clarify the question/issue for those who may not be familiar with the Greek and Hebrew, in Exodus 3:14, as the OP mentions, God tells Moses his name:
אהיה אשר אהיה
I am who I am
εγω ειμι ο ων
I am the [one] being
God then shortens this name, instructing Moses to tell the people that
אהיא שלחני אליכם
“I am” sent me to you.
ο ων απεσταλκεν με προς υμας
“The one being” has sent me to you.
In the following verse the Tetragrammaton (yhwh, “the LORD”) is introduced, and it is this appellation which is utilized extensively throughout the Hebrew Bible, consistently translated into Greek as kurios (“lord”). Remarkably, the “I am” title1 gets very little attention in the remainder of the Hebrew bible (with one possible exception of which I am aware). The same is not true of the later Jewish Greek literature. This begins (to my knowledge) in the LXX, most prominently in the book of Jeremiah. Here God is addressed by the prophet repeatedly:
אהה אדני יהוה
Ah, lord YHWH.
ο ων δεσποτα κυριε
The [one] being, master lord
See Swete’s edition of Jer 1:6, 14:13, 39:17(= 32:17 in Hebrew/English).2 In these, the identity of the addressee is stated redundantly, so there is no doubt regarding the reference.3 Although no precise date can be given for LXX Jeremiah, it’s probably safe to place it in the 2nd C. BCE, predating the Book of Wisdom about which OP asks. Later, we have extensive use of ο ων as a reference to Ex 3:14 in the writings of Philo. John Whittaker states:
Philo employs the Septuagint designation [referring to ο ων in Ex 3:14] as an important link between Jewish faith and Platonism… [his] identification of the supreme deity with Platonic reality constitutes the cornerstone of Philo’s system and no doubt of Alexandrian Jewish theology in general.4
Philo wrote around the turn of the era in Alexandria, the same approximate time and place that (per Wikipedia), the Book of Wisdom is thought to have been composed. Later still, we have NT usage of the appellation which are, to my knowledge, uncontested as references to Ex 3:14 (Rev 1:4, 8; 4:8).
Given this background, I see no reason to doubt that Wisdom 13:1 derives the title from Exodus 3:14. As has been shown, this usage was also precedented in contemporary Jewish literature. These are not mutually exclusive options any more than a modern song referring to "I Am" fails as a reference to this same text.
1. Despite frequent claims to the contrary, “I am” is not a possible translation of the Tetragram itself.
2. There appears to be a text critical issue here about which I have asked another question.
3. Although the Greek text is clear, exactly how this relates to the Hebrew is more opaque.
4. John Whittaker. Moses Atticizing. Phoenix, 21:3 (1967), pp. 196-201. This paper discusses the possibility that ο ων may have been known/used outside the Jewish community of the era. In preparation for that argument, the evidence that it was well known within that community (such as pertains to our Q&A) is reviewed.