New International Version Hebrews 13:15 Through Jesus, therefore, let us continually offer to God a sacrifice of praise--the fruit of lips that openly profess his name.

4 Answers 4


It is sometimes hard to keep track of which nouns the pronouns refer back to. In order to identify who is speaking, and to whom; as well as the subjects and verbs, and the objects of the verbs we need to look at the entire sentence. It is also best not to use the NIV as it has many errors.

If we start again using Young's Literal Translation (my preferred choice at times), and we begin at vs. 12:

"12 Wherefore, also Jesus -- that he might sanctify through [his] own blood the people -- without the gate did suffer;

13 now, then, may we go forth unto him without the camp, his reproach bearing;

14 for we have not here an abiding city, but the coming one we seek;

15 through him, then, we may offer up a sacrifice of praise always to God, that is, the fruit of lips, giving thanks to His name;

16 and of doing good, and of fellowship, be not forgetful, for with such sacrifices God is well-pleased." (YLT)

The first noun in vs. 12 is Jesus. The pronouns immediately following refer back to the proper noun - Jesus.

In vs. 15 "through him" refers to Christ, as He is our mediator and High Priest through whom we offer sacrifices - the fruit of our lips and our praise, doing good and our fellowship one with another. The object of the action of the offering of sacrifices is God, our heavenly Father.

Vs. 15 clearly shows that we are to give thanks to God. So, it is God's name that we give praises and thanks, and we do so through our savior and high priest - Christ Jesus.

If we check the Interlinear we find that vs. 15 states:

"δι’ αὐτοῦ οὖν ἀναφέρωμεν θυσίαν αἰνέσεως διὰ παντὸς τῷ Θεῷ τοῦτ ἔστιν καρπὸν χειλέων ὁμολογούντων τῷ ὀνόματι αὐτοῦ"

which is translated in English as

"Through him then we should offer (the) sacrifice of praise continually everything to God that is (the) fruit of (the) lips confessing the name of him."

Remember that the author of Hebrews, possibly Paul, wrote these words to the first century AD Hebrew Christians, those originally taught under the Mosaic law of all the trespass and sin offerings in the "camp"... the congregation. The immediate application was to Jerusalem. Going outside the camp was to take the word of the gospel of Christ beyond Jerusalem.

Barnes Notes on the Bible on vs. 15:

"By him, therefore - The Jews approached God by the blood of the sacrifice and by the ministry of their high priest. The exhortation of the apostle here is founded on the general course of argument in the Epistle "In view of all the considerations presented respecting the Christian High Priest - his dignity, purity, and love; his sacrifice and his intercession, let us persevere in offering through him praise to God." That is, let us persevere in adherence to our religion.

The sacrifice of praise - For all the mercies of redemption. The Jews, says Rosenmuller (Alte u. neue Morgenland, in loc.), had a species of offerings which they called "peace-offerings, or friendship-offerings." They were designed not to produce peace or friendship with God, but to preserve it. Burnt-offerings, sin-offerings, and trespass-offerings, were all on account of transgression, and were designed to remove transgression. But in their peace-offerings, the offerer was regarded as one who stood in the relation of a friend with God, and the oblation was a sign of thankful acknowledgment for favors received. or they were connected with vows in order that further blessings might be obtained, or they were brought voluntarily as a means to continue themselves in the friendship and favor of God; Leviticus 7:11-12; compare Jenning's Jew. Ant. i.335.

That is, the fruit of our lips - The phrase "fruit of the lips." is a Hebraism, meaning what the lips produce; that is, words; compare Proverbs 18:20; Hosea 14:2.

Giving thanks to his name - To God; the name of one being often put for the person himself. "Praise" now is one of the great duties of the redeemed. It will be their employment forever. " Source: here

The ESV translates it as "lips that acknowledge his name." The KJV has "lips giving thanks to his name." The NASB has "lips that give thanks to his name." The ERV has "lips which make confession to his name."

The object of our praise and thanks is God. That thanks, or acknowledgment, or confession is made through our High Priest, Christ Jesus, and ultimately to God. So, we are praising and thanking our heavenly Father - God.

(Bold emphasis is mine.)

  • Indeed, identifying the referents in scripture is a full time job. If God is the referent, then what name were these Jewish believers being urged to openly profess? Oddly the whole of the 13 chapter work does not contain the divine name.
    – Ruminator
    Commented Nov 4, 2017 at 16:21
  • The Jews did a good job of hiding God's name from us. Many today will say it is Yahweh, from the tetragrammaton of YHWH from Ex. 3:14. But the vowel indicators were replaced with those of Adonai, and Elohim, supposedly so no one would take His name in vain. My personal take on this is that they did not want the "pagan" nations to have that knowledge. See some thoughts josh.org/wp-content/uploads/History-of-the-Tetragrammaton.pdf, or eliyah.com/tetragrm.html. And there is a previous discussion of His name on this site.........cont'd below....
    – Gina
    Commented Nov 4, 2017 at 18:02
  • here: hermeneutics.stackexchange.com/questions/194/…. I have heard variations of the breathed "ehya huway", or Yehovah, or Yahovah, and Yahavah. Most seem to accept Yahweh.as His name.
    – Gina
    Commented Nov 4, 2017 at 18:04
  • Keep in mind that the "J" in the English translations was created to indicate the "Y" pronunciation of the Latin and Greek vowlels "ie" which rendered the "ye" sound. By adding the hook at the bottom of the "i" the English tried to differentiate between the long "eee" sound of iesous spelling in the Greek. Still In Germany today Jesu is pronounced with a "y" sound, just as every other "J" is said with a "Y" sound. It got slurred over the years in the English because of the French influence with the soft "g" sound as in "je suis ...". And now the English say a hard "J" in Jesus.
    – Gina
    Commented Nov 4, 2017 at 18:16
  • Thanks for making your case and the good information. Please see my answer where I suggest a different view.
    – Ruminator
    Commented Nov 4, 2017 at 18:41

The name by which Jesus knew God was ‘Father’. When he prayed, addressing God whom he knew, he called him ‘Father’ :

I thank thee, O Father, Lord of heaven and earth , Matthew 11:25. Father, I thank thee that thou hast heard me, John 11:41. Father, the hour is come, glorify thy Son, John 17:1. O my Father, if it be possible, let this cup pass from me, Matthew 26:39. Abba, Father, all things are possible unto thee, Mark 14:36. Father, forgive them, for they know not what they do, Luke 23:34. Father, into thy hands I commend my spirit, Luke 23:46.

No man, said Jesus, knoweth the Son, but the Father; neither knoweth any man the Father, save the Son, and he to whomsoever the Son will reveal.

The Son reveals the Father to whomsoever he will do so. Matthew 11:27. And then, such call upon the Father, saying, Abba, Father, Romans 8:15.

And the Father is glorified in heaven when men see the works of such as believe in the Son, Matthew 5:16. He that hath seen me, hath seen the Father, said Jesus, John 14:9.

This is the name of him whom Jesus Christ, the Son of God, reveals. Father.

And this is the name whom his sons call upon. And this is the name that his sons know him by.

And this is the name which they profess, among men, to his glory.

  • The question I was asking was not "which of God's names was he referring to" but rather "whose name". That is, was he referring to the name of God or that of Jesus? I take it then that you take it to be the name (or rather, title) of God that he has in mind. Thanks.
    – Ruminator
    Commented Nov 4, 2017 at 18:09
  • 1
    @Ruminator I understand. And I understand your answering your own question. To confess the name of Christ is to confess the name of 'Father' so I see no harm in the multiple answers. I think it inappropriate, however, to mention the name YHWH or Jehovah, when the Father of Lord Jesus Christ is in view.
    – Nigel J
    Commented Nov 4, 2017 at 19:33

Sometimes I ask a question that I believe I know the answer to but in this case I asked because I was not sure. Now, despite having received two answers I'm still uncertain. However, I lean more toward him speaking of openly professing the name of Jesus, God's anointed one. I'm setting forth the reason that I lean that way as well as why I have reservations about the view.

First of all, the strongest case for it referring to the divine name is that he is loosely quoting Psalm 18:49 (17:50 LXX):

49 Therefore will I confess (ἐξομολογέομαι) to thee, O Lord, among the Gentiles, and sing to thy name. 50 God magnifies the deliverances of his king; and deals mercifully with David his anointed, and his seed, for ever.

Brenton, L. C. L. (1870). The Septuagint Version of the Old Testament: English Translation (Ps 17:49–50). London: Samuel Bagster and Sons.

This same verse is cited by Paul in Romans:

NIV Romans 15: 7Accept one another, then, just as Christ accepted you, in order to bring praise to God. 8For I tell you that Christ has become a servant of the Jewsb on behalf of God’s truth, so that the promises made to the patriarchs might be confirmed 9and, moreover, that the Gentiles might glorify God for his mercy. As it is written:

“Therefore I will praise (ἐξομολογήσομαί) you among the Gentiles; I will sing the praises of your name.”

The verb ἐξομολογήσομαί is essentially a synonym of the one used in Hebrews:

ἐξομολογέομαι, confess, τὰς ἁματρίας LXXDa.9.20, Ev.Matt.3.6, al., J.AJ8.4.6; admit, acknowledge, μυθογραφίαν Str.1.2.35; ἧτταν Plu.Eum.17; πίστεις PGnom.18; ὅτι .. Ep.Phil.2.11, Luc.Herm.75; διότι .. LXX2Ma.7.37; esp. in legal formulae, ἐ. εἰληφέναι PAvrom.1.7 (i B.C.); acknowledge, υἱόν POxy.1473.9 (iii A.D.): abs., acknowledge a liability, PHib.1.30.18 (iii B.C.). 2. make grateful acknowledgements, give thanks, sing praises, LXX2Ki.22.50, al., Ph.1.59, al., Ev.Matt.11.25: c. acc., τοῦτο τῷ Κυρίῳ LXXGe.29.35. II. later in Act., agree, consent, Ev.Luc.22.6:—Pass., ἐξωμολογημέναι ἀποδείξεις agreed, admitted proofs, SIG685.95 (Magn. Mae., ii B.C.).

Liddell, H. G., Scott, R., Jones, H. S., & McKenzie, R. (1996). A Greek-English lexicon (p. 597). Oxford: Clarendon Press.

It is certainly a cognate:

ὁμολογέω (ὁμόλογος ‘of one mind’) impf. ὡμολόγουν; fut. ὁμολογήσω; 1 aor. ὡμολόγησα. Pass.: aor. 3 sg. ὡμολογήθη (Just.); pf. ὡμολόγηται (Just.) (Soph., Hdt.+) ① to commit oneself to do someth. for someone, promise, assure (Hdt., Pla. et al.; IGR IV, 542, 6f [Phryg.] εὐχὴν … , ἣν ὡμολόγησεν ἐν Ῥώμη; Jos., Ant. 6, 40 ‘consent’) ἐπαγγελίας ἧς (by attr. of the rel. for ἥν) ὡμολόγησεν ὁ θεὸς τῷ Ἀβραάμ promise that God had made to Abraham Ac 7:17; μεθʼ ὅρκου ὁμ. w. aor. inf. foll. (B-D-F §350; Rob. 1031f) promise with an oath Mt 14:7. Solemnly promise, vow ὁ … ὁμολογήσας μὴ γῆμαι ἄγαμος διαμενέτω Agr 18. ② to share a common view or be of common mind about a matter, agree (Hdt. 2, 81 of similarity in cultic rites; Pla., Sym. 202b ὁμολογεῖταί γε παρὰ πάντων μέγας θεὸς εἶναι=there is general agreement that [Love] is a great god; prob. Cleanthes in his definition of τὸ ἀγαθόν: Coll. Alex. p. 229, no. 3, 7; 4 Macc 13:5 reach a conclusion together; pap; Sext. Emp., Adv. Eth. 218 agreement on a subject; Iren. 1, 26, 2 [Harv. I 212, 5] οἱ … Ἐβιωναῖοι ὁμ. μὲν τον κόσμον ὑπὸ τοῦ ὄντως θεοῦ γεγονέναι; Theoph. Ant. 2, 4 [p. 102, 10]) ὁμολογοῦσιν τὰ ἀμφότερα they agree (with one another) on all of them Ac 23:8 (but s. 3a below). This meaning readily shades into ③ to concede that something is factual or true, grant, admit, confess (Just., D. 80, 1 admission of someth. in an argument; sim. 110, 1) ⓐ gener., to admit the truth of someth. (Pla., Prot. 317b ὁμολογῶ σοφιστὴς εἶναι; Jos., Ant. 3, 322 an admission of factuality by enemies; Just., D. 2, 5 ὡμολόγησα μὴ εἰδέναι admission of ignorance) agree, admit καθάπερ καὶ αὐτὸς ὡμολόγησας Dg 2:1. ὁμολογήσαντες ὅτι ξένοι εἰσίν admitting that they were (only) foreigners Hb 11:13. ὁμολογοῦμεν χάριν μὴ εἰληφέναι we admit that we have not received grace IMg 8:1. For Ac 23:8 s. 2 above. ⓑ w. a judicial connotation: make a confession, confess abs. MPol 6:1; 9:2. τί τινι: ὁμολογῶ δὲ τοῦτό σοι, ὅτι Ac 24:14. Foll. by acc. and inf. ὡμολόγησεν ἑαυτὸν Χριστιανὸν εἶναι MPol 12:1 (cp. w. inf. foll.: Just., A II, 13, 2 Χριστιανὸς εὑρεθῆναι … ὁμολογῶ; Theoph. Ant. 2, 8 [p. 118, 7] ὁμ. αὐτὰ τὰ πλάνα πνεύματα εἶναι δαίμονες). Cp. John the Baptist’s action in reply to questioning by the authorities καὶ ὡμολόγησεν καὶ οὐκ ἠρνήσατο καὶ ὡμολόγησεν ὅτι (dir. disc. follows) J 1:20 (cp. Plut., Mor. 509e in interrogation; the contrast ὁμ. and ἀρνεῖσθαι as Thu. 6, 60, 3; Phalaris, Ep. 147, 3 ὁμολογοῦμεν κ. οὐκ ἀρνησόμεθα; Aelian, NA 2, 43; Jos., Ant. 6, 151; cp. MPol 9:2 and many of the passages given below). ⓒ w. focus on admission of wrongdoing (X., An. 1, 6, 7; Ps.-Aristot., Mirabilia 152 ὁμολογοῦντες ἃ ἐπιώρκησαν; Arrian, Anab. 7, 29, 2 [s. ἴασις 2]; Jos., Ant. 6, 151) ἐὰν ὁμολογῶμεν τὰς ἁμαρτίας ἡμῶν if we confess our sins 1J 1:9 (cp. Appian, Liby. 79 §369 ὁμολογοῦντες ἁμαρτεῖν; Sir 4:26; ApcSed 13:3 [abs.]; ὁμ. τὸ ἁμάρτημα Did., Gen. 93, 6; ins fr. Sardis: ὁμολογῶ τ[ὸ| ἁμάρτημ]α Μηνί=I confess my sin to Men, s. FSteinleitner, Die Beicht 1913, p. 46 no. 20, 4f=ILydiaKP p. 15, no. 25). S. ἐξομολογέω 2a. ④ to acknowledge someth., ordinarily in public, acknowledge, claim, profess, praise ⓐ of a public declaration as such (Herodian. 4, 4, 5 [fr. Steinleitner, p. 109, s. 3c] expression of thanks) ὁμολογήσω αὐτοῖς ὅτι (w. dir. disc. foll.) I will say to them plainly Mt 7:23. W. inf. foll. (X., Mem. 2, 3, 9; Jos., Ant. 9, 254) θεὸν ὁμολογοῦσιν εἰδέναι they claim to know God Tit 1:16 (opp. ἀρνεῖσθαι, s. 3b). ⓑ of profession of allegiance (ὁμολογῶ εἶναι χριστιανός Theoph. Ant. 1, 1 [p. 58, 11])—Esp. of confessing Christ, or the teaching of his community/church; w. double acc. (B-D-F §157, 2; 416, 3; Rob. 480.—Jos., Ant. 5, 52; Just., A II, 5, 1 εἰ θεὸν ὡμολογοῦμεν βοηθόν, D. 35, 2 Ἰησοῦν ὁμολογεῖν καὶ κύριον καὶ χριστόν) ἐὰν ὁμολογήσῃς κύριον Ἰησοῦν if you confess Jesus as Lord Ro 10:9 (cp. τὸν Δία ὁμ. θεόν Orig., C. Cels. 5, 46, 7). αὐτὸν ὁμ. Χριστόν confess that he is the Messiah J 9:22. ὁμ. αὐτὸν σαρκοφόρον ISm 5:2. ὁμ. Ἰησοῦν Χριστὸν ἐν σαρκὶ ἐληλυθότα acknowledge that Jesus Christ has come in the flesh 1J 4:2; cp. 2J 7. W. acc. and inf. (Isocr., Or. 4, 100, 61d; Aelian, VH 1, 27; Orig., C. Cels. 1, 41, 9) ὁμ. Ἰησοῦν Χρ. ἐν σαρκὶ ἐληλυθέναι Pol 7:1a; 1J 4:2 v.l. ὁμ. τὴν εὐχαριστίαν σάρκα εἶναι τοῦ σωτῆρος ἡμῶν Ἰ. Χρ. ISm 7:1. W. ὅτι foll. (Isocr., Or. 11, 5, 222d, but w. mng. 2; Just., D. 39, 6) ὁμ. ὅτι Ἰησοῦς ἐστιν ὁ υἱὸς τοῦ θεοῦ 1J 4:15. ὁμ. ὅτι κύριον ἔχετε Hs 9, 28, 7 (opp. ἀρν.). W. a single acc. of the pers. whom one confesses, or whom one declares to be someth. that is revealed by the context (Just., D. 35, 1, 2 Ἰησοῦν … ὁμολογεῖν; Did., Gen. 176, 13 ὁ γὰρ ὁμολογῶν τὸν θεὸν ἐν Χριστῷ τοῦτο ποιεῖ; Theoph. Ant. 3, 9 [p. 222, 13] θεὸν ὁμ.): ὁμ. τὸν υἱόν 1J 2:23 (opp. ἀρν. as Mel., P. 73, 537 ἀπαρνήσω τὸν ὁμολογήσαντά σε). μὴ ὁμ. τὸν Ἰησοῦν 4:3 (s. λύω 4, end). Cp. 2 Cl 3:2a. τινὰ ἔν τινι someone by someth. ἐν τοῖς ἔργοις 4:3; cp. 3:4. ἐὰν ὁμολογήσωμεν διʼ οὗ ἐσώθημεν if we confess him through whom we were saved 3:3. The acc. (αὐτόν) is supplied fr. the context J 12:42; cp. Hs 9, 28, 4.—W. acc. of thing ὁμ. τὸ μαρτύριον τοῦ σταυροῦ Pol 7:1b. ὁμ. τὴν καλὴν ὁμολογίαν 1 Ti 6:12 (ὁμ. ὁμολογίαν=‘make a promise’: Pla., Crito 52a; Jer 51:25; but = ‘bear testimony to a conviction’: Philo, Mut. Nom. 57, Abr. 203).—Instead of acc. of pers. we may have ἔν τινι confess someone, an Aramaism (s. Mlt-H. 463f; B-D-F §220, 2; EbNestle, ZNW 7,1906, 279f; 8, 1907, 241; 9, 1908, 253; FBurkitt, Earliest Sources for the Life of Jesus 1910, 19f). ὅστις ὁμολογήσει ἐν ἐμοὶ ἔμπροσθεν τῶν ἀνθρώπων whoever confesses me before people Mt 10:32a; sim. Lk 12:8a. But p 709 2 Cl 3:2 uses the acc. when it quotes this saying (s. above.—In these last three pass. opp. ἀρν.). Jesus’ acknowledgment of the believer on judgment day complements this confession: ἐν αὐτῷ Mt 10:32b; Lk 12:8b. αὐτόν 2 Cl 3:2b (opp. ἀρν. in all these pass.—GBornkamm, D. Wort Jesu vom Bekennen [Mt 10:32]: Pastoraltheologie 34, ’39, 108–18). τὸ ὄνομα αὐτοῦ Rv 3:5.—Abs. pass. στόματι ὁμολογεῖται with the mouth confession is made Ro 10:10. ⓒ praise w. dat. ( Dio Chrys. 10 [11], 147; B-D-F §187, 4; Rob. 541. In the LXX ἐξομολογεῖσθαι τῷ θεῷ. S. ἐξομολογέω 4.) καρπὸς χειλέων ὁμολογούντων τῷ ὀνόματι αὐτοῦ the fruit of lips that praise his name Hb 13:15.—B. 1267. DELG s.v. ὁμό. M-M. TW. Sv.

Arndt, W., Danker, F. W., Bauer, W., & Gingrich, F. W. (2000). A Greek-English lexicon of the New Testament and other early Christian literature (3rd ed., pp. 708–709). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Young's doesn't capture the "profession"/"confession" aspect of the verb (which BDAG doesn't bring out in that unique situation), nor the sense of "praise" obscuring the connection with the LXX:

YLT Hebrews 13: 12 Wherefore, also Jesus -- that he might sanctify through [his] own blood the people -- without the gate did suffer; 13 now, then, may we go forth unto him without the camp, his reproach bearing; 14 for we have not here an abiding city, but the coming one we seek; 15 through him, then, we may offer up a sacrifice of praise always to God, that is, the fruit of lips, giving thanks (ὁμολογούντων) to His name; 16 and of doing good, and of fellowship, be not forgetful, for with such sacrifices God is well-pleased.

Okay, so that is where I see a connection with the divine name (YHVH). However, I see it as referring to confessing Jesus' name among the gentiles because of the association with the other elements in the "sacrifice of praise" in the context.

First of all he refers to Jesus' rejection and expulsion, reproach and persecution "outside of the camp" (which refers to Jerusalem and by extension, Judaism, the temple, the sacrificial system and the synagogues) and how these Jewish saints, likewise excluded from the synagogues are to identify with his rejection and "go forth to him outside of the camp" (to the gentiles). There their confession of the name of Jesus is, as I read it, "the fruit of their lips, confessing his [the Christ's] name".

YLT Hebrews 13: 12 Wherefore, also Jesus -- that he might sanctify through [his] own blood the people -- without the gate did suffer; 13 now, then, may we go forth unto him without the camp, his reproach bearing; 14 for we have not here an abiding city, but the coming one we seek; 15 through him, then, we may offer up a sacrifice of praise always to God, that is, the fruit of lips, giving thanks (ὁμολογούντων - c) to His name; 16 and of doing good, and of fellowship, be not forgetful, for with such sacrifices God is well-pleased.

To confess the name of God doesn't seem to fit the context of association with the rejection of the Christ from Jerusalem nor the "going forth" to him of the Jewish believers. That's why I lean toward it referring to confessing the name of Jesus, despite the original context of Psalm 18 (which does however refer to confessing among the gentiles).


The "altar" of which the new covenant Jews were able to partake was the altar upon which believers are offered to God as a sweet smelling sacrifice when they are killed for confessing their allegiance to Jesus Christ:

[Heb 13:10-16 NLT] (10) We have an altar from which the priests in the Tabernacle have no right to eat. (11) Under the old system, the high priest brought the blood of animals into the Holy Place as a sacrifice for sin, and the bodies of the animals were burned outside the camp. (12) So also Jesus suffered and died outside the city gates to make his people holy by means of his own blood. (13) So let us go out to him, outside the camp, and bear the disgrace he bore. (14) For this world is not our permanent home; we are looking forward to a home yet to come. (15) Therefore, let us offer through Jesus a continual sacrifice of praise to God, proclaiming our allegiance to his name.

  • I do see your meaning, but still it's cutting a thin line. Christ is the agency, the mediator, the reconciliation to the Father. It is through Jesus (Yeshua) that we go to the Father in prayer, giving thanks. The object of the action.. giving thanks.. is still to God, the Father. There are verses for praising God, and for praising His Son. Eph 5:20, "giving thanks always for all things, in the name of our Lord Jesus Christ, to the God and Father;" So maybe we should agree that it is both of them?
    – Gina
    Commented Nov 5, 2017 at 12:38

The name he is referring to is Jehovah. His name deserves the praise. always. Jesus is only the mediator/son of god.

  • Welcome to this site. When giving an answer here, it is always good if some reason can be given for any claim made. As it is, the question is not about Jesus being the only Mediator, or of being the unique Son of God. The Greek text uses the same word for through 'him' [Jesus] at the start of verse 15 as it does for the name of 'him' at the end of the verse. If you can deal with the Greek text, that would be helpful, plus other verses about publicly declaring faith in the name of Jesus as being 'the good confession' Christians are to make.
    – Anne
    Commented Mar 26, 2019 at 13:23
  • The detailed answer given by Ruminator is a great example of the in-depth examination of the text, and related sections of the Bible. Gina's answer also goes in-depth, arriving at a different conclusion. And Nigel's answer shows why 'Father' needs to be considered. If you had compared all those answers and taken their points on board in your own answer, there would have been a point in giving your answer. As it is, you really only made a comment, which is what the 'Comment' box is for.
    – Anne
    Commented Mar 26, 2019 at 13:32

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