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In Genesis 2:6, there is a verb which seems to be a hiphil verb (3sg fem.) but it doesn't fit the normal pattern of conjugation.

וְאֵד יַעֲלֶה מִן־הָאָרֶץ וְהִשְׁקָה אֶת־כָּל־פְּנֵי־הָאֲדָמָה׃

And a mist went up from the earth ,and watered the whole face of the ground.

The beginning הִ and the feminine ending kamatz + ה both tip me off to this being a hiphil verb. This is consistent with the meaning of שָׁקָה in the hiphil binyan, which is, "to water". However, with hiphil verbs there is normally a yod between the first and second root letter. We don't see that here. In fact, the vowel pattern seems to be irregular.

Is my parsing of this verb correct (3sg feminine perfect hiphil)? Is the verb simply irregular? If so, where can I find the full conjugation?

  • Most traditional Hebrew grammars fall short when offering a comprehensive list of verb paradigms. Try this. It was one of the best purchases I ever made for studying Hebrew. It had been recommended to me by an Israeli native Hebrew speaker on another forum. – Der Übermensch Oct 29 '18 at 12:47
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The verb is hifil perfect third masculine singular. (The final ה is part of the root rather than a feminine ending.*) This is the normal vowel pattern for hiphil perfect verbs of the III-hey (a.k.a. ל׳׳ה) type. Please see the paradigms. Your example in Gen 2:6 is identical in its vowel pointing to the hiphil perfect 3ms for גלה given there.

I'm not certain what textbook you're using, but most should have a chapter about that covers weak verbs of the III-hey type in the hiphil stem. In Pratico/Van-Pelt it's Chapter 31, though the relevant bit is missing from the preview. This is a perfectly regular form of one of the most common classes of weak verbs.

Regarding, "however, with hiphil verbs there is normally a yod between the first and second root letter" -- I think you mean between the second and third root letters. However, this dos not hold in III-hey verbs.

* Possibly too much information, but to dispel one particular source of confusion that might arise when looking at the paradigm: technically, I believe the original root had a yod in the third position. The ה is actually a vowel letter holding its place. The yod reappears in many of the inflected forms. You'll see it in the hiphil paradigm -- e.g. הגלית -- but that yod reflects the primitive root rather than the usual hiphil hireq-yod infix mentioned above. So the fact that it doesn't appear at all in the perfect 3ms is not surprising or concerning.

  • Thanks! That is very helpful. Unfortunately, I never learned this subclass of hiphil verbs. Do all hiphil verbs that end in ה belong to this type? I assume so, but I just wanted to be clear. – ktm5124 Sep 11 '17 at 7:44
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    Essentially, yes. There is a small set (גבהּ to be high; ‏מהמהּ‎ to hesitate; ‏נגהּ to shine; תמהּ to be surprised -- I think that's all of them, and only the first is common) which have a primitive III-ה and inflect differently. That is marked with a mappiq (dot) in the root form, showing that it's a consonant rather than a vowel letter. I would disregard those for now if I were you. (OTOH, "normal" III-hey verbs are a good class to try to wrap your head around. The endings are very stable across stems, yet they are very different from the morphology of other verbs. And very common!) – Susan Sep 11 '17 at 8:07
  • Thanks for the paradigm link and 'plain-speak'. Didn't think there was a hook big enough to drag me back to the nikkudim maze...turns out it just took a couple of small ones. :) – tblue Sep 11 '17 at 9:44
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  1. I use scholarsgateway.com to first find the parsing/root.

http://scholarsgateway.com/search/WLC/Genesis/2:6

Vav Consecutive Verb Hiphil Perfect 3rd Mas. Sing. Root: שׁקה Transliteration: vəhišəqāh Strong's Number: H8248 1. to give to drink, irrigate, drink, water, cause to...

  1. Dictionary page of Pealim to plug in the root.

https://www.pealim.com/dict/

  1. Pealim Conjugation page:

https://www.pealim.com/dict/2297-lehashkot/

הִשְׁקָה hishka he / it gave drink

Pealim is a dynamic site (new words added often). Hope this helps.

-----Edit--------

Although I abandoned nikkud a while back (self-study of them was daunting), your question re-piqued interest.

Not an easy find - and I could be wrong - but perhaps there is a qamets instead a chireq because it's a lamed-hey verb (as in 3rd position of the root is a hey).

Found this website: https://quizlet.com/98825536/weak-verbs-flash-cards/

4 Major categories of weak letter verbs

1) lamed hey or final hey

2) pey nun or first nun

3) pey yod or first yod

4) pey aleph or first aleph

Final Hey Characteristic

1 a through g

1) without afformatives:

a) Perfects end in qames hey

b) Imperfects end in segol hey

c) Imperatives end in sere hey

d) Infinitive absolutes end in holem hey

e) Infinitive constructs end in holem waw taw

f) Participles in segol hey

g) Qal passive participles end in sureq yod


Other instances of this verb in preterite - "Wigram Englishman's Hebrew-Chaldee Concordance of the Old Testament - Numerically Coded to Strong's..."

HIPHIL - Preterite

Gen. 2:6, 24:46, 29:3, 8

Num. - 5:24, 27 - 20:8

Deut. 11:10

Psa. 6-:3(5)

Jer. 9:15(14) - 23:15 - 35:2

Eze. 32:6

Joel - 3:18 (4:18)

  • Ah, thank you for your edit! Very informative. – ktm5124 Sep 11 '17 at 8:14
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The noun אֵד is masculine, not feminine. The yod you are referring to is not written as a letter. Rather, it is a punctuation mark under the ה in השקה. The Wiktionary entry for השקה might be helpful.

  • I don't see any punctuation marks written under the letter ה, however I do see a punctuation mark written under the ק. You can see this clearly here: scholarsgateway.com/search/WLC/Genesis/2:6. – ktm5124 Sep 11 '17 at 6:01
  • If that punctuation mark somehow substitutes for a yod, I would be very happy to have you explain how that works, and why it happens that way. – ktm5124 Sep 11 '17 at 6:02

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