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Romans 9:24-26 (NASB)

[24]even us, whom He also called, not from among Jews only, but also from among Gentiles. [25]As He says also in Hosea, "I will call those who were not My people, 'My people,' And her who was not beloved, 'beloved.'" Romans 9 [26]"And it shall be that in the place where it was said to them, 'you are not My people,' There they shall be called sons of the living God."

This is the reference as quoted by Paul in Romans

Hosea 1:9-10 (NASB)

[9]And the Lord said, "Name him Lo-ammi, for you are not My people and I am not your God." [10]Yet the number of the sons of Israel Will be like the sand of the sea, Which cannot be measured or numbered; And in the place Where it is said to them, "You are not My people," It will be said to them, "You are the sons of the living God."

Hosea 2:23 (NASB)

23"I will sow her for Myself in the land. I will also have compassion on her who had not obtained compassion, And I will say to those who were not My people, 'You are My people!' And they will say, 'You are my God!'"

Emphasis added

Paul quotes Hosea as also referring to the Gentiles in his letter to the church at Rome,but it seems Hosea was only addressing the Jewish nation.

Does Hosea refer to the Gentiles at all?

  • Gentiles, being grafted in are Israel (Rom 9:6 ;11:16-25; Jer 31:31-32), or as St. Paul says (using it as a synonym for 'God's people'): "the Israel of God" (Gal 6:16). – Sola Gratia Sep 4 '17 at 18:51
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I'm of the opinion that it is the last phrases of 9:25 and 9:26 that include the gentiles:

NASB Romans 9:[24]even us, whom He also called, not from among Jews [Judeans] only, but also from among Gentiles. [25]As He says also in Hosea, "I will call those who were not My people, 'My people,' And her who was not beloved, 'beloved.'" Romans 9 [26]"And it shall be that in the place where it was said to them, 'you are not My people,' There they shall be called sons of the living God."

At the time of the writing of Hosea both the Northern Kingdom (Israel) and the Southern Kingdom (Judah) existed:

NIV Hosea 1:1The word of the Lord that came to Hosea son of Beeri during the reigns of Uzziah, Jotham, Ahaz and Hezekiah, kings of Judah, and during the reign of Jeroboam son of Jehoasha king of Israel:

He speaks of the end of the Northern Kingdom (Israel):

NIV Hosea 1: 4Then the Lord said to Hosea, “Call him Jezreel, because I will soon punish the house of Jehu for the massacre at Jezreel, and I will put an end to the kingdom of Israel.

He promises to continue to "show love" to Judah:

NIV Hosea 1: 6Gomer conceived again and gave birth to a daughter. Then the Lord said to Hosea, “Call her Lo-Ruhamah (which means “not loved”), for I will no longer show love to Israel, that I should at all forgive them. 7Yet I will show love to Judah; and I will save them—not by bow, sword or battle, or by horses and horsemen, but I, the Lord their God, will save them.”

Additionally, he says Israel won't be his People but Judah will:

NIV Hosea 1: 8After she had weaned Lo-Ruhamah, Gomer had another son. 9Then the Lord said, “Call him Lo-Ammi (which means “not my people”), for you are not my people, and I am not your God.

So Israel:

  • will no longer be his People while Judah will continue to be his People
  • will no longer be loved while Judah will continue to be loved

There is no gentile "People of God". The Jews are his only People. However, as Paul says, not only do the sons of Israel become the Beloved but gentiles also. They don't become his People but they do become "sons of the living God".

I prepared this Venn Diagram to help clarify:

Venn Diagram of My People vs Beloved

  • Who is represented by the pink part of the upper circle (not Gentiles and not of Judah). Who is represented by the intersection of Gentiles and Judah My people? – enegue Oct 20 '17 at 22:38
  • @enegue I suppose that the top would be the "Israelis that once were the children of God" and that the gentiles that are not intersecting would be the idolatrous heathen. The lower non-intersecting circle would be unbelieving proselytes. – Ruminator Oct 20 '17 at 22:44
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Those of the Single-intent school must say that Hosea only spoke of Israel.

However, from the Sensus Plenior school, all things speak of Christ. God used words, histories, prophecies, types, shadows, riddles, etc to speak of Christ.

Therefore the histories are literal histories, but God put them in scripture because in the telling of the history he embedded a hidden picture of Christ.

  • The key I believe is Hosea was speaking specifically to 10-tribe Israel/Joseph/Ephraim. Ephraim was Jacob's (Israel's) spiritually adopted firstborn (Gen 48, Jer 31). Ephraim is lost to the nations (goyim/ethnos/often improperly "Gentiles"). Paul can be speaking to nations and calling God's chosen out from them to be united with Judah (Ez 37). In this context the grafting back in of wild branches makes much more sense. It's not the church and Israel to Paul, neither is it the church replacing Israel. Rather "gentiles" and Judah reunited in one church/Israel. – Joshua Mar 31 at 15:45
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I appreciate Ruminator's response.

"In the place" should not be taken lightly. "Galilee of the Gentiles" a borderland of the Northern Kingdom was precious to Jesus, and in His day was a crossroads of nations/cultures. Jesus wanted to tread physically in Galilee after His Resurrection specifying to His disciples that He would meet them there "at the mountain".

He appeared after His resurrection primarily to those who had been with Him from the beginning, largely from Galilee. Perhaps David's designated heir Solomon worked a prophetic act when he gave to Hiram 20 cities of Galilee. Hiram apparently referred to them as "worthless", which in redemptive sense may have also been a prophetic work of God.

Jesus visited the area of Caesarea Philippi [Paneas] as well as "the region of Tyre and Sidon" - unclean Gentile Galilean territories. Sozomen wrote of a tradition that the woman healed of the bleeding disorder was from Paneas and erected there a statue commemorating Christ [legend, but it is what it is].

Paneas at the foot of Mt Hermon was a 'seat' of pagan spirituality and the region of 'Bashan'/Hermon is frequently seen as a high-conflict zone throughout the OT. The battles over that region are not resolved to this very day. Perhaps Jesus tread upon and laid claim not only to the Samaritan & "lost 10 tribes" regions but to a focal point of the dominion of the lesser gods over all Gentiles.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Galilee#/media/File:Ancient_Galilee.jpg.
By William R. Shepherd (1871–1934) - Wikimedia Commons

  • I have broken up the block of text into paragraphs, and added the image. You can re-edit to make any changes. – enegue Oct 20 '17 at 22:28
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Hosea is talking about the northern kingdom of Israel. God said about them that they were not His people and not His beloved. Paul applies it to the gentiles also, since the gentiles are also not God's people and not His beloved.

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