In a comment to this question What are the 12 names of the the apostles of the lamb? Mark Edward raised the point if the author of Revelation was aware of or concerned with Paul and his claim to apostleship.

One verse in particular stands out:

I know your works, your labor, your patience, and that you cannot bear those who are evil. And you have tested those who say they are apostles and are not, and have found them liars (Revelation 2:2 NKJV)

remembering without ceasing your work of faith, labor of love, and patience of hope in our Lord Jesus Christ in the sight of our God and Father (1 Thessalonians 1:3 NKJV)

The three characteristics, works, labor, and patience Paul cites in the letter to the Thessalonians are used in the letter to the church in Ephesus and in each case there is a deficiency. Works of faith are simply works; labor of love is only labor; patience of hope is just patience. Ephesus reflects three potential deficiencies in any Christian ministry. It is possible to do works without faith, labor without love, and have patience without hope.

The letter to Ephesus also acknowledges how this church followed Paul's final instruction in Miletus (Acts 20:17-38) to be watchful for false teachers.

Is this evidence the writer of Revelation was aware of the apostle Paul? Is there other evidence the author of Revelation was aware of Paul and his work as an apostle?

  • I find references to the truth revealed elsewhere, but not 'textual dependance', which assumes there is no inspired truth. For example, Mark 11:25/Colossians 3:13 etc & Sirach 28:1-7. Commented Jul 27, 2017 at 13:52
  • 1
    Being an Apostle, and being one of the Twelve, are two different things. Scripture lists many Apostles not from among the Twelve. They are the Seventy.
    – Lucian
    Commented Jul 29, 2017 at 23:18

4 Answers 4


Strong Circumstantial Evidence

Assume for a moment that the author of Revelation is not John the Apostle (my view is that the Apostle did), even though history argues for the Apostle being so and a person named John is given as author (though not directly identified as the apostle as opposed to some other John) in Rev. 1:1.

It would still seriously strain credibility to think that the one who is authoring Revelation, a book specifically written to churches in Asia (chapters 3-4), had not heard of Paul, the one who came to Ephesus (Acts 19:1), at which coming vv.8-10 note (NKJV, bold added):

8 And he went into the synagogue and spoke boldly for three months, reasoning and persuading concerning the things of the kingdom of God. 9 But when some were hardened and did not believe, but spoke evil of the Way before the multitude, he departed from them and withdrew the disciples, reasoning daily in the school of Tyrannus. 10 And this continued for two years, so that all who dwelt in Asia heard the word of the Lord Jesus, both Jews and Greeks.

Observe the causal connection that the reason word spread of Jesus to the people of Asia was the two year teaching stint of Paul in the school of Tyrannus. Now even if one took the early, rather than the late, authorship of Revelation, in either case it was written after what any timeline of the Apostle Paul's life (there are slight variations in timelines) would have placed this ministry in Ephesus to Asia, and also after the further follow-up letters of Paul to those churches there.

That the founder and main teacher of churches in Asia would not be known by another who was obviously intimately tied to the Asian churches again, circumstantially, strains credibility.

Exegetical Evidence

Dave Gifford on his blog listed six parallels in Revelation to Paul's writings (which he notes he got from "William Hendriksen, More Than Conquerors. [Grand Rapids: Baker, 1986]").1 Those six are:

  1. Revelation 1.5 and Colossians 1.18 both refer to Jesus as the “firstborn from the dead” in contexts that speak of his rule.
  2. Revelation 3.3 and 16.15 say that Jesus will come like a thief. Paul in 1 Thessalonians 5.2 and 5.4 say that the day of the Lord will come “like a thief in the night.”
  3. Revelation 3.12, 21.2 and 21.10 refer to a new Jerusalem that descends from heaven. Galatians 4.26 refers to “the Jerusalem that is above”.
  4. Revelation 17.14 and 1 Timothy 6.15 refer to Jesus as King of kings and Lord of lords.
  5. Revelation 18.4 calls its readers to come out of Babylon and not take part in her sins. 2 Corinthians 6.17 quotes Isaiah 52.11, which is also a call to come out of Babylon. In Ephesians 5.11 Paul tells his readers not to take part in the sins of darkness.
  6. In Revelation 21.4, a voice from the throne says that the old order of things has passed away, and in verse 5 God says “I am making everything new!” 2 Corinthians 5.17 says if anyone is in Christ, the old has gone and the new has come.

Gifford also notes there:

Mark Wilson also has a chart containing eschatological topics that Revelation and Paul both write about, such as shouts, trumpets, crowns, and angels at the last day; Jesus coming on the clouds and ruling the nations; a day of vengeance and wrath; the nations being deceived; judgment and reward; exhortations to keep awake and to endure.

The source for Wilson he gives is "Charts on the Book of Revelation. (Grand Rapids: Kregel, 2007), 36-37."

At the least, the above shows a number of both linguistic and thematic parallels between Revelation and Paul's writings.

P. Richard Choi did a study of parallels to Paul related to Rev 14:7, in which he concluded:2

Therefore, I submit that the proper response to the gospel given in Rev 14:7 is a rather accurate summary of Paul’s understanding of faith expressed in Romans: Living by faith means: (a) to fear God and give glory to him who is an impartial Judge of all humankind and (b) to worship God, who is Creator of the world. (239)

And later he states:

In conclusion, then, the apocalyptic delineations of the gospel found in Rev 14:6-12 are consistent with Paul’s concept of the gospel in Romans. And it appears that the third angel’s message is indeed the message of righteousness by faith in verity.In conclusion, then, the apocalyptic delineations of the gospel found in Rev 14:6-12 are consistent with Paul’s concept of the gospel in Romans. And it appears that the third angel’s message is indeed the message of righteousness by faith in verity. (243)

I have not yet read Choi's evidence, and that he is Seventh-day Adventist, I would not wholly agree on some of his basic theological positions. But he believes a parallel exists there. Now, whether a passage that is communicating what an angel was proclaiming (Rev 14:7) can really help us know if the writer of Revelation knew of Paul may lessen the value of this study for the answer here.

If I have time, I'll work on seeing if I can find any of my own parallels on this.

If John the Apostle was the Author of Revelation

The above points are independent of whether or not John the Apostle is the author of Revelation. But if the Apostle is the author, then there is direct evidence that John was aware of Paul.

Paul had met with at least some of the apostles during the Jerusalem Council (Acts 15:2, 4, 6, 22, 23). The text is not clear there who, but it is the plural of apostles, so at least Peter and one other. The context implies it was a larger group of the apostles than just two, but no explicit count is given. But that is not the only reference to the council.

Paul mentions this meeting in Galatians 2. He met "privately to those who were of reputation" (v.2), but more importantly he notes in v.9 (bold added):

and when James, Cephas, and John, who seemed to be pillars, perceived the grace that had been given to me, they gave me and Barnabas the right hand of fellowship, that we should go to the Gentiles and they to the circumcised.

That this would not be a reference to the apostle John is highly unlikely, given that the apostles were noted to be present at the council and no other John would have held a position as "pillar" of the the church. But the verse before that also gives some indication of whether John would have in any way recognized Paul's apostleship (Gal 2:8, bold added):

(for He who worked effectively in Peter for the apostleship to the circumcised also worked effectively in me toward the Gentiles)

The implication is that Paul understood the Jerusalem Council (including then John) to be a recognition of his work with the Gentiles being parallel to that of Peter's apostleship to the Jews.


Certainly the Book of Revelation does not mention Paul, but that does not mean the author was not "aware" of him or his writings. The historical circumstances and some exegetical clues lean, in my opinion, to a highly plausible answer of "yes," the author of Revelation knew of Paul. Whether this knowledge was considered to be of his apostleship is unclear, though if linguistic and thematic parallels between Revelation and Paul are related, then that implicitly recognizes Paul in some authoritative fashion.

If one accepts John the Apostle as the author of Revelation, then the answer becomes 100% certain that John was aware of Paul and also likely that John viewed Paul's work as being on par with Peter's apostleship ministry.

Addendum: A Comment about Relevance of this Question

At first glance, I felt this question was irrelevant with respect to what elicited it—namely, the comment that challenged whether "the author of Revelation was aware of or concerned with Paul and his claim to apostleship." My logic on first glance was that the whole book was a revelation given to the author John (whichever John one holds this person to be) by Jesus (Rev 1:1 , 19), so it really did not matter if he knew of Paul or not. Indeed, in many respects, whatever exegetical parallels do exist between Revelation and Paul's writings need not indicate a dependence precisely because of this book's mode of revelation in which John was showed these things directly by Jesus and the angels that guide him in the visions. But...

Specifically, the question that brought the comment that generated the question here related to what names for the 12 apostles of the Lamb in Rev 21:14 were being referred to (and thus, which people were possibly being referred to), of which one possible option proposed is Paul. Hence the inference is that if the author of Revelation did not know of Paul, or of his potential apostleship, he could not be under consideration as one of the 12 because the author would not have known of Paul and thus not included him (conceptually) in that statement.

This is still most likely true, despite how the book was revealed. In Rev 21:14 John is seeing this New Jerusalem (v.10) and describing it in the writing of Revelation. So as he views the foundations in v.14, it is John who sees the 12 names, and so he likely recognizes them and chooses to describe them by the phrase "the names of the twelve apostles of the Lamb." So whether he would recognize Paul as such or not would be very relevant to answering who the twelve are.

The one caveat of doubt (hence my "likely" statements above) is that in Revelation 21:9 it mentions an angel that came and "talked" (aorist tense) with John to begin the tour of the New Jerusalem. In v.15 John refers back to this angel as "he who talked with me" (present active participle), so more literally "the one talking to me." This could imply that the angel was giving a "running" commentary during the whole tour of vv.10-14. In that case, the angel may have been the one who referred to the names as "the names of the twelve apostles of the Lamb," in which case John may or may not have recognized them (indeed, they may not have even been written in a language he understood). If this idea of a running commentary is true (and it need not be; the present active participle could be implying other ideas as well), then it may in fact still be irrelevant if John knew of Paul or not with respect to the content of the names listed.


1 Dave Gifford, "Six Parallels between Revelation and Paul’s Letters," Giffmex's Blog of Apoca-Lists, Feb. 2010, accessed July 26, 2017.

2 P. Richard Choi, "Paul and Revelation 14," Journal of the Adventist Theological Society 20:1-2 (2009):223-243.

  • @rhetorician I changed my answer to be more clear, as I see how you misunderstood me based off previous wording. I do believe John the Apostle wrote it, but some do not (believing it was some other John). So my beginning assumption is to prove that even if one does not believe that, there is still evidence of knowledge.
    – ScottS
    Commented Jun 21, 2019 at 16:19
  • As the young people say nowadays: "My bad." Sorry for jumping to conclusions. To be honest, I didn't think of reading your sentence another way! (So much for being conditioned by the so-called "higher critics." They simply assume just because an author such as Paul has his name attached to a letter does not necessarily mean Paul wrote it. Now THAT is a slippery slope in my opinion!) Commented Jun 21, 2019 at 16:40
  • @rhetorician No problem. It really was very poorly worded upon rereading quite some time after original post.
    – ScottS
    Commented Jun 21, 2019 at 19:17

What a great question! Also notice that these same three elements are famously present in I Corinthians 13:13:

But now faith, hope, love, abide these three; but the greatest of these is love. (NASB)

Thus, Paul reminds us of Jesus, when he was asked about the greatest commandment. Jesus was quoted as replying

"'You shall love the Lord your God with all your heart, and with all your soul, and with all your mind.’ This is the great and foremost commandment. The second is like it, ‘You shall love your neighbor as yourself.’ On these two commandments depend the whole Law and the Prophets.” - Matthew 22:36-40 (NASB)

Do references to faith, hope, and love appear elsewhere? How about here:

For God so loved the world, that He gave His only begotten Son, that whoever believes in Him shall not perish, but have (the hope of?) eternal life. For God did not send the Son into the world to judge the world, but that the world might be saved through Him. - John 3:16,17 (NASB)

The text in Revelation 2 and 3 were presented as the literal words of the risen and glorified Messiah as dictated to a person named John.

When I saw Him, I fell at His feet like a dead man. And He placed His right hand on me, saying, “Do not be afraid; I am the first and the last, and the living One; and I was dead, and behold, I am alive forevermore, and I have the keys of death and of Hades.” – Revelation 1:17,18 (NASB)

And what follows is represented as Jesus' word-for-word message to seven churches including an evaluation based on Faith, Hope, and Love.

So, was John aware of Paul's teachings? It seems that the triad was recognized even before Paul's ministry began. So I guess all one can definitely say is that Paul's teaching was consistent with those presented in the gospels of Matthew and John.


What evidence is there the writer of Revelation was aware of the apostle Paul?

Yes ,John new Paul, they met during Paul's second visit to Jerusalem .Galatians 2:1-9 and Acts 15:1-35

John met Paul in Jerusalem when the Apostles gathered to decide on the circumcision issue. Also Paul writes in Galatians 2:9 (below) that He personally met James , Cephas and John who gave Him and Barnabas the right hand of followship to go and preach to the Gentiles. During Paul's second visit to Jerusalem about 49 C.E. concerning the circumcision issue , Titus who accompanied Paul, was a Greek and not circumcised, was compelled to be circumcised. This visit to Jerusalem is recorded in Acts 15:1-35 and it is mentioned that Paul was with the Apostles and the Elders in Jerusalem when they gathered : "The apostles and the elders came together to look into this matter."(Acts 15:6)

Galatians 2:1-9 NASB

The Council at Jerusalem

2 "Then after an interval of fourteen years I went up again to Jerusalem with Barnabas, taking Titus along also. 2 [a]It was because of a revelation that I went up; and I submitted to them the gospel which I preach among the Gentiles, but I did so in private to those who were of reputation, for fear that I might be running, or had run, in vain. 3 But not even Titus, who was with me, though he was a Greek, was compelled to be circumcised. 4 But it was because of the false brethren secretly brought in, who had sneaked in to spy out our liberty which we have in Christ Jesus, in order to bring us into bondage."

5 "But we did not yield in subjection to them for even an hour, so that the truth of the gospel would remain with you. 6 But from those who [b]were of high reputation (what they were makes no difference to me; God [c]shows no partiality)—well, those who were of reputation contributed nothing to me. 7 But on the contrary, seeing that I had been entrusted with the gospel [d]to the uncircumcised, just as Peter had been [e]to the circumcised 8 (for He who effectually worked for Peter in his apostleship [f]to the circumcised effectually worked for me also to the Gentiles),"

9 "And recognizing the grace that had been given to me, James and Cephas and John, who were reputed to be pillars, gave to me and Barnabas the right [h]hand of fellowship, so that we might go to the Gentiles and they to the circumcised."


Here's evidence suggesting Paul is in revelation.

book of Ephesians was written around 61 A.D. A few years later around 67 A.D.

Yeshua tells John to write to all his church assemblies in Asia.

To the messenger of the church of Ephesus write…” “I know your works, your labor, your patience, and that you cannot bear those who are evil. And you have tested those who say they are apostles and are not, and have found them liars;”-Revelation 2:1,2 NKJV

What you see, write in a book and send it to the seven churches which are in Asia: to Ephesus, to Smyrna, to Pergamos, to Thyatira, to Sardis, to Philadelphia, and to Laodicea.”-Revelation 1:10,11 NKJV

remain in Ephesus that you may charge some that they teach no other doctrine.”-1 Timothy 1:3 NKJV

This you know, that ALL those in Asia have turned away from me.”-2 Timothy 1:15

Yeshua had commended the Ephesians for rejecting liars some who had claimed to be apostles. With this, we know of no others from that time who claimed to be apostles, anywhere. Yet, we know Paul claimed to be an apostle and that he specifically claimed to be an apostle to the Ephesians! We also know that Paul had defended himself against being called a lying false apostle to Timothy who happened to be in Ephesus at the time! Are we really to believe this is just a coincidence and that all of Asia just happened to turn its back on Paul at this time? I was also reading Timothy might be written by someone else. Why is there so much confusion over this?

Another thing to consider is when Paul says he plants and Apollos waters. In Tarsus, the god was Mithra a sun god, the mystery religion. Mithra was responsible for bringing rain, vegetation, and health. Mithra is Apollo the physician aka the destroyer. Think apaulo. And I've course his name was Saul, meaning "preyed for" a name which matches his arrogance. Paul thinks he is Christ of the Gentiles, the savior of the gentiles. In reality, he set a deadly trap, now everyone worships on Sunday and secretly worships Mithras. To top it off he says this to Timothy:

remain in Ephesus that you may charge some that they teach no other doctrine.”-1 Timothy 1:3 NKJV

People wake up stop worshipping on Sunday. Constantine was known to worship Mithra before he repented and he didn't repent till his death. this does not in any way discredit the bible but strengthens it. Now you have a perfect example of what not to be and how to weed out the fake apostles.

  • Welcome to Bible Hermeneutics SE and thank you for your contribution. When you get a chance, please take the tour to understand how the site works and how it is different than others.
    – agarza
    Commented Jun 23, 2021 at 17:32
  • Hi Thomas, thanks for contributing on the SE Biblical Hermeneutics site. As a reminder, this is an academic site that deals with the process of scriptural interpretation based on language/grammatical rules and context. This site attempts to be very specific when addressing the OP's question. In reference to the question above, your answer only presented one verse from the Book of the Revelation which was general in nature but then attempted to link Paul as a false apostle without presenting any specific scriptural evidence. In the future, please be more specific when presenting evidence.
    – alb
    Commented Jun 23, 2021 at 19:16

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