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A case can be made that the four kingdoms of Daniel Chapter 2 are "Nebuchadnezzar," "Media," "Medo-Persia," and "Greece."

  • Daniel writes that Nebuchadnezzar, not Babylon, is the head of gold -- look at the history dates.

  • Upon Nebuchadnezzar's death, Media became the dominant power in the known world.

  • It is quickly overtaken, however, by it's cousins, the Persians, who annex Media to form a new kingdom of Medo-Persia.

  • Then comes Alexander the Great and the kingdom of Greece. He intermixes the conquered peoples with Greeks, making everyone learn Greek, and worship Greek gods.
    The conquered peoples, in particular, Israel, are not pleased with this, and do not mix with the Greek Iron.

Is this a reasonable proposition?

  • I have added some formatting to the question to help you with the presentation of any future questions you might have. – enegue Apr 21 '17 at 1:30
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    In relation to your proposition, one of the principle differences with the Roman Empire schema, say, is that "Nebuchadnezzar, not Babylon is the head", but the only evidence you provide for this is "look at the history dates". I'm sure you would not be persuaded to accept a proposition based on such weak evidence. You need to give readers legitimate reasons to think about what you are suggesting. – enegue Apr 21 '17 at 1:31
  • @Enegue, absolutely correct! – N.Ish Apr 21 '17 at 15:17
  • Thank-you for your comment! I will try and come up with those dates to show it is possible. However, I am really wondering if anyone else has thought of this before, and has any reference material they can point me to, that suggests or encourages or supports this idea. There is certainly plenty of talk of many other theories, but I would like someone to help me work through this particular theory, and see if it is possible. – J. Easterbrook Apr 22 '17 at 4:23
  • With the idea of double fulfillment, this is a good possibility. I haven't researched the commentaries, but there is a good change at least one or more authors has identified one or more of these kingdoms as the referent of Daniel 4. – James Shewey May 20 '17 at 15:59
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No, as it does not take into account the events prophesied in Dan. chap. 11 which covers about 400 years of secular history from Xerxes, the fourth king after Cyrus (Persia), through the kings of Media and Persia (Medo-Persian), on down through the kings of the north and the kings of the south, who were the Seleucid and Ptolemy dynasties derived from the split of Alexander's kingdom (Greece), and then on to the Roman capture of the province of Judea under Pompey, and ends with the assassination of Julius Caesar in 44 BC. See excerpt of this history at Exposition of Daniel 11

So, the history provided in Dan. 11 covers the four kingdoms of the dream of chap. 2, and the vision of chap. 7 and they were Babylon, Mede-Persian, Greece, and Rome. This brought in the time of the prophesy to be ready for the birth of Christ, and His crucifixion (cutting off) in that 490 year time given to Daniel. (Dan. 9:24-27)

In the days of the last kingdom, the mixed kingdom with toes and feet of iron and clay, part strong and part brittle.... Rome.... was the time when Christ's everlasting kingdom would be established. Dan. 2:44,

"`And in the days of these kings raise up doth the God of the heavens a kingdom that is not destroyed -- to the age, and its kingdom to another people is not left: it beateth small and endeth all these kingdoms, and it standeth to the age." (YLT)

The fourth kingdom had to be the one in which Christ was manifested on earth, was crucified / sacrificed for the sins of the world, ascended to the Father to receive the everlasting kingdom that would never be destroyed. That happened in the first century A.D., so the fourth kingdom of Nebuchadnezzar's dream was that which ruled over Jerusalem during the first century A.D.

Daniel was given a vision of the fourth kingdom again when Belshazzar was king of Babylon, how it was different from the three before it (Dan. 7:7), terrible and exceedingly strong, with great iron teeth. It trampled the remnant. And we should stop and ask, which remnant, because when we consider that we find the time again. The remnant was the remainder of the tribes of Israel, the last of the tribes which came out of Babylonian captivity, and would rebuild Jerusalem. Dan. 7:7,

"After this I was seeing in the visions of the night, and lo, a fourth beast, terrible and fearful, and exceedingly strong; and it hath iron teeth very great, it hath consumed, yea, it doth break small, and the remnant with its feet it hath trampled; and it [is] diverse from all the beasts that [are] before it; and it hath ten horns." (YLT)

Jerusalem was captured under Pompey and Judea became a province of Rome in 63 BC.

Furthermore, Daniel chap. 7 is tied to the dream of Daniel chap. 2 by the ascension of Christ and the establishment of the kingdom which would never be destroyed. Dan. 7:13-14,

"13 `I was seeing in the visions of the night, and lo, with the clouds of the heavens as a son of man was [one] coming, and unto the Ancient of Days he hath come, and before Him they have brought him near."

"14 And to him is given dominion, and glory, and a kingdom, and all peoples, nations, and languages do serve him, his dominion [is] a dominion age-during, that passeth not away, and his kingdom that which is not destroyed." (YLT)

The fourth kingdom is tied again to the destruction and desolation of Jerusalem and the Heodian temple in A.D. 70 by the "cutting off" of Christ during that same century which was prophesied to happen during the 70th "week" of the 490 years given to complete the desolation of Daniel's people and Daniel's holy city in Dan. 9:24 -27. The first half of the first sentence of verse 24 defines the time and the people of that prophesy.

"`Seventy weeks are determined for thy people, and for thy holy city, ..."

Daniel's people were the Jews, and Daniel's holy city was Jerusalem. The prophesy does not apply to any other nation than that in which Jerusalem was located... Judea. And the desolation of Jerusalem occurred in 70 A.D. under the Roman empire of the first century A.D.

There can be no other conclusion than that the fourth kingdom, the mixed kingdom of iron and clay, the great and terrible kingdom with teeth of iron that trampled all the other kingdoms beneath its feet was the old Roman empire.

More information regarding the desolation prophesy of Dan. 9:24 - 12:13 may be of interest at the posts "Daniel and the End Times" and "The Seventy Weeks of Dan. Chap. 9" at ShreddingTheVeil

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