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What is the meaning and implications of "restore" in Amos 9:11-15? Please help me analyse the function of the Hebrew word "'aqim [אקים]" as used in Amos 9:11 and its surrounding context.

Amos 9:11 In that day “I will restore David’s fallen shelter—I will repair its broken walls and restore its ruins—and will rebuild it as it used to be,...NIV

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  • I've added the text and a link to context (and Hebrew source), but please elaborate: what's the problem? It's hard to know what issue for interpretation you have in mind. (I used NIV because it matched your translation equivalent. Feel free to change/adjust.)
    – Dɑvïd
    Mar 27, 2017 at 19:04
  • Need an exegetical analysis of 'aqim.
    – Segun
    Mar 27, 2017 at 19:17
  • Have you looked at any commentaries, e.g. the Jewish Study Bible? It has a long footnote on the passage (wherein it translates v.11, I will set up again the fallen booth of David). I don't mind reproducing the commentary in an answer if it would be useful, but it's not answering your question directly, which is about the meaning of a specific word.
    – user33515
    Mar 27, 2017 at 20:32
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    @Segun Adding "Need an exegetical analysis of 'aqim" does nothing to develop the question or help us understand what you think the problem is. Are you asking us to do your homework?
    – Dɑvïd
    Mar 27, 2017 at 20:44
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    Welcome to Biblical Hermeneutics Stack Exchange Segun, thanks for contributing! Be sure to take our site tour to learn more about us. We're a little different from other sites. And for the record, we're not a homework help site - and we typically encourage all users to demonstrate what they've done already to try and find an answer to their problem.
    – Steve can help
    Mar 29, 2017 at 7:49

4 Answers 4

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The word aqim is the causative form of the verb koom, rise. As Dov F said, it means to raise up.

The causative form of the verb is used 146 times in the Old Testament. It refers to establishing a covenant (Gen 6:18;9:9 etc), performing a word or oath (Gen 26:3; Num 30:13-14; etc); to raise up the tabernacle (mishcan) and its furniture, to raise up a prophet or leader, to raise up the line of David.

Amos also uses it in 2:11 to raise up prophets, in 5:2 that there is none to raise up the virgin of Israel, and to raise up an adversary 6:14.

The things to be raised up in Hos 9:11 are the succoh of David and its ruins.


A succoh is a hut. Succoh is never used for the tabernacle of Moses nor of the tent that David erected to house the ark.

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None of the six Hebrew words for 'restore' are used in Amos 9:11-15 according to Young's exhaustive concordance (see pages 811-2). It is the Hebrew word 'qum' which means 'To cause to rise up'.

Young renders Amos 9:11 as "In that day will I raise up the tabernacle of David... I will raise up his ruins, and I will build it as in the days of old." (K.J.) Amos is saying that God is going to cause to rise up the tabernacle, and the ruins of David's inheritance, which the people in Amos's days had so squandered that God was going to adversely judge the people.

The surrounding context (which you asked about) helps give the meaning. Up till then Amos had been uttering so many words of condemnation to God's people, it seems surprising that he should end his prophecy with a wonderful picture of future blessings. David is the kingly figure (which is why "his" ruins is the right rendition, not "the" ruins). It is the Son of David promised in 2 Samuel 7 that is the focus of Amos's thinking.

The broken places Amos speaks of is a reference to the division between the north and the south.. So, when God says he will "restore his ruins", this refers to David, the ruin of the kingly line, an almost exclusively Messianic prediction that the Lord will raise up from David this ruler who will come and build the Davidic dynasty as it used to be. In the future, even those enemy nations, such as Edom etc, will be incorporated into a time of blessings to come after God has punished his people.

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The root of the word אקים means to stand up or erect (see http://mg.alhatorah.org/Concordance/6965). "Restore" is a loose translation, the verse refers to raising up a fallen kingdom.

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It occurs to me that you might want a doctrinal answer. If so, consider that Jesus Himself said that this restoration was fulfilled through John the baptists ministry which was focused on "repentance".

Matthew 17:11 KJV — And Jesus answered and said unto them, Elias truly shall first come, and restore all things.

The description of what is needing restoration or raising seems to be covered when in Matthew 17:11, Jesus used the greek word "pas", implying that everything shall be restored or raised up again.

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