Would the term inclusio be correctly applied to Revelation 12:6 ("Then the woman fled into the wilderness . . .") and verse 14 ("the two wings of the great eagle were given to the woman, so that she could fly into the wilderness . . .")? Both verses are obviously speaking of the same "event," with verse 14 picking up where verse 6 left off.

A related question would be, is there a technical literary or theological term for the intervening, or "bracketed," section within an inclusio (in this instance vv 7-13, which deal with the war in heaven and Satan being cast out)?

Since this is narrative material, I'm not sure of the correct terminology to describe these features.

  • 1
    The narrative with the woman continues after verse 14. Commented Feb 27, 2017 at 17:20
  • 2
    Not sure about an inclusio, but it is part of a chiasmus.
    – user2910
    Commented Feb 27, 2017 at 18:19
  • 1
    The real question is what does it mean. We can label things with technical tags.. but WHY is it there?
    – Bob Jones
    Commented Sep 2, 2017 at 14:21

3 Answers 3


I have chosen this question, not only because it is long deserving of being answered but because I feel it touches on my previous answer to the "70 Weeks" question and that therefore I may have something relevant to say. Much like previously, this 12th chapter of Revelation (at least thru V.14), as well as the relevant part of the 9th chapter of Daniel, has long been puzzling and frustrating for me and over the years I have therefore been back and forth on it's interpretation. What I say now is hopefully borne out of educated, not to mention thoughtful perusal.

First of all I think the narrative here, in this chapter, is a flashback, and therefore does not follow on from the narrative of chapter 11. I also think, in particular response to the question, that the two 1260 day time periods, mentioned in Verses 6 & 14, are in fact not in reference to the same event, although they do involve the same "Woman" subject. We are being taken back to the birth of the "Christian" church, which is foreshadowed by the actual birth of Jesus, which was in the Fall of 2 BC (1), and which was signed in the heavens, as per Verse 1, and even Verse 2. Apart from Verses 1, 6 & 14 the "Woman" is also referenced in Verses 4 & 13 and in each verse the Greek language is portraying not only the feminine but also the singular. Four of the five Greek cases are used with regard to the "Definite Article", which precedes all but one of the "Woman" references (V.1., being the exception, where the "Indefinite Article"..a.. is implied in translation). Initially, we have the genitive case (V.4); then the nominative (V.6); accusative (V.13) and dative (V.14), the vocative case is not used with the definite article in Greek. The four different Greek representations of the woman is due to declension of the noun, according to case, gender & number, Greek therefore being a much more exact language than ours and is therefore able to convey a much more exact shade of meaning.

      (1) In Luke, it would appear that Jesus was born in 6 AD, Which is ludicrous, at the time of the Census registration, under Quirinius. This is a red herring, as there was an earlier registration (but not an actual Census) in the Fall of 2 BC, in Bethlehem (whereas the later registration was in Roman Syria) and it is during this first registration (also during the time of Quirinius) that Jesus was born...Luke 2:1 thru 5.

Also being signed in heaven, in Verse 3, is the great red dragon, i.e. Satan (we don't need to talk about the seven crowned heads and ten horns for the purposes of this posting), whose tail, in Verse 4, is seen to be sweeping away a third of the stars of heaven, down to the earth, which is most likely a reference to Satan's sympathetic angels, which can only mean potential trouble for the soon to be forming church, not to mention Jesus. Satan (although not yet himself swept out of heaven) is seen to be standing before the woman as she gives birth to a son, a male (Jesus, masculine, singular), who foreshadows the child (early Christian Church, which is portrayed to be singular and neutral in gender in the Greek), in order that he (Satan) may follow Jesus and later devour said child. So, we have the "Woman", a reference not only in the visage of Mary but also in the visage of God's wife, so to speak. We then have the male son, Jesus, and then the early Christian Church as represented by the child, although in Verse 5, the child would appear to collectively represent first Jesus and secondly the early Christian Church, who are then, both, caught away to God and to his throne, over a period of some 33 and one half years (33 to 66 AD), more on this later.

In Verse 6, with regard to the woman, it's very tempting to understand this singular and feminine visage to be a reference to just Mary but let's not forget we are also to understand that we are also talking speculatively about God's wife, who is seen to have fled (past tense) into the Wilderness...."where she had a place prepared by God, so that there she might be nourished for...one thousand two hundred and sixty days... This first of the 1260 day periods would appear to come right, if not immediately, after Christ's death and resurrection in 33 AD but before the Apostles are caught up to heaven. It would therefore appear to refer to the period of the Spring of 33 AD to the Fall of 36 AD, until such time as the first Gentiles are included and thus strengthen the fledgling Christian movement..see Acts 10:45.

Over the next 3 Verses of Rev.12, we are told about war breaking out in heaven (after Jesus has ascended) between Michael (whose name means.."Who is like God") and his angels and the dragon (Satan) and his angels, resulting in Satan and his remaining heavenly angel followers being hurled down to earth. The righteous leading angel here had to be the only Archangel, Michael (forget about all the so called Archangel's in the book of Enoch, which could very well have not been written by Enoch and therefore may well be fiction), the first of God's angels. The only begotten angel probably, making for the argument that Michael and Jesus are one. But that's another story, for another time, maybe.

Verse 10 hears a loud heavenly voice, collective voice of God's heavenly wife presumably, that announces the arrival of God's kingdom with Christ as the ruler, cheering the fact that... "the accuser of our brethren has been thrown down, who accuses them before our God day and night. And they overcame him because of the blood of the lamb and because of the word of their testimony (witnessing), and they did not love their life even to death"...NASB 12:10,11. I think we are talking about Jesus' 12 Apostles (crown of 12 stars..12:1) here, who between the Spring of 33 AD and Fall of 66 AD, witnessed unto death (excepting John), with no fear for their lives, who overcame the Devil's influence because of the blood of the Lamb being fresh in their memories. Verse 12, talks about heaven continuing to rejoice, while there is to be..."Woe to the earth and the sea".

Satan, Verse 13, now on earth, then persecutes the "Woman" that gave birth to the male (masculine, singular, not Neuter as for child, which the NASB mistakenly adds (child that is) to the translation at the end of the verse). Does this mean that we are talking only about Mary here. One has to wonder. Regardless, our woman flies(not fled) into the wilderness, yet again, to her place, where she is fed, yet again, for...a time and times and half a time...Here we have the second 1260 day period, which you should note is described differently here, in Verse 14, and it comes after the brethren have witnessed even to death, which was right up to 66 AD( the beginning of Daniel's "70th Week" as explained in my previous post). I think this second 1260 day period, therefore, may indeed refer to the Fall of 66 AD, through to the Spring/Summer of 70 AD, which, as we all know, culminated in the destruction of Jerusalem and it's Temple......


Daniel's 70th week is a period when Jesus, as Messiah, confirms the covenant with His people.

Midweek or during that week the person with whom Jesus is confirming the covenant is both afflicted (Dan 7:25) and nourished or fed.

This is the Time corresponding to the phrases “a time’s times and half a time” and ”1260 days” as is seen in Dan 7:25 and Rev 12:14. The 70th week can be seen as two periods of 1260 days.

In Rev 12:6 we see that this first section of 1260 days can be described as one in which God nourishes the person with whom Jesus is confirming the covenant.

Re 12:6 And the woman fled into the wilderness, where she hath a place prepared of God, that they should feed her there a thousand two hundred and threescore days.

The Second period of 1260 days is seen in Rev 12:14 where we see that the same person is nourished from/through (Strong's 575)the presence of the Serpent.

Rev 12:14 And to the woman were given two wings of a great eagle, that she might fly into the wilderness, into her place, where she is nourished for a time and times, and half a time, from the face of the serpent.

This second so-called period of “A Times, Times and Half a Time” (1260 Days) is summarized by this statement from Job -

Job 36:10 (RSV) He opens their ears to instruction and commands that they return from iniquity.

In Three instances God, either by Himself as in Job, or through Jesus (Matt 24:51 and 25:41) or Paul (1 Cor 5:5) disciplines Christian Men who sin willfully.

He does this by sending them into the presence or (as it is termed in Rev 12:14) the face (Strong's 4383) of Satan as a part of “confirming the covenant” during the 70th week of Daniel.

In this process, He allows them to “pass under the rod” and brings them into the bonds of the covenant, Ez 20:37.

Eze 20:37 And I will cause you to pass under the rod, and I will bring you into the bond of the covenant:

This desired result of the second process is described by Paul in 1 Cor 5:5.

1Co 5:5 To deliver such a one unto Satan for the destruction of the flesh (nature), that the spirit may be saved in the day of the Lord Jesus.

In the New Testament, this process is illustrated by the two concepts mentioned in 1 Cor 11:32 and Heb 12:5-11.

Dan 7:25 And he shall speak great words against the most High, and shall wear out the saints of the most High, and think to change times and laws: and they shall be given into his hand until a time and times and the dividing of time.


This passage is about what takes place at the birth of a baby The Dragon is a metaophor for the Mind The Mind is a metaphor for Satan The Breath is what powers up the mind The eternal battle between good and evil is the battle that takes place between the mind wanting to experience the physical world and the Soul wanting to return to GOD As soon as a baby is born, it takes its first breath and the mind starts storing experiences within the baby's nervous system These experiences make up the baby's personality and trick the soul into identifying with the illusion of Individuality (A Time and Space based existence)

The Wilderness is a Metaphor for Meditation You must be Still and Know that you are GOD The Mind is activated by SENsations flowing through the physical body's Nervous System This process creates the illusion of individuality along with Time, Space, Thoughts, Desires and Emotions

The Two Wings represent the Breath GOD breathed the breath of Life into Adam and he became a living soul There are Two ways the Breath can flow into the body (right and left nostrils) Your natural breath flows through one nostril for approximately 2 hours and then rotates to the other nostril This powers up the right and left parts of the brain in an unbalanced way which powers up the lower brain (mind) and traps you into Time and Space The Left brain creates the illusion of Time The Right brain creates the illusion of Space Balancing your Breath Flow by "Taking Up Your Cross" as Jesus taught through the practice of Alternate Nostril Breathing by entering into The Bridal Chamber (Noah called this the Ark, Moses called in Parting the Red Sea and The Ark of the Covenant) which is the Nasal Pharynx When you raise your tongue you can balance your breath, which balances Time and Space and puts you into a deep meditation so you can commune with GOD

  • I downvoted this answer because it reads like a personal belief statement. Steve is entitled to his opinion, but I don't believe that the symbolism has anything to do with what John would have meant. There is nothing in the interpretation which shows why the elements of the story have that meaning. eg, the dragon as a metaphor for the mind: where is the basis for that parallel? Commented Apr 15, 2019 at 7:28
  • Thank you, Peter, for explaining the reason for your down vote. I agree with your observations. What would be necessary from a hermeneutical perspective is biblical or scholarly support for each of the metaphors. Unsupported assertions are indeed simply opinions, and they can't bear up under scrutiny.
    – Dieter
    Commented Feb 24 at 18:50

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