John gives a more detailed description of this aspect of the crucifixion than either Mark or Mathew:
And they crucify Him, and divide His garments among themselves, casting a lot for them to decide who should take what. (Mark 15:24 DLNT)
And having crucified Him, they divided His garments among themselves, casting a lot.
(Matthew 27:35 DLNT)
Then the soldiers, when they crucified Jesus, took His garments and made four parts— a part for each soldier— and the tunic. Now the tunic was seamless, woven from the top through the whole. So they said to one another, “Let us not tear it, but let us cast-lots for it to decide whose it will be”— in order that the Scripture [in Ps 22:18] might be fulfilled, the one saying, “They divided My garments among themselves, and they cast a lot for My clothing”. So indeed, the soldiers did these things. (John 19:23-24 DLNT)
Writing after both Mark and Matthew, John completes the record of how the clothing of Jesus was divided. This account is purposeful to include three pieces of information:
- The Old Testament passage fulfilled
- The number of pieces of clothing (five)
- Identifying the piece of clothing which was not torn (a tunic - χιτὼν)
As noted by User34445 John makes the point that both aspects of Psalm 22:18 were fulfilled: the clothing was divided and lots were cast for the garments. In addition, there is a difference between the Masoretic Text (MT) and that John which cites:
They divide my clothes among themselves casting lots for my garments. (JPS Translation)
They divided My garments among themselves, and they cast a lot for My clothing. (DLNT)
The Hebrew is plural (lots). John states a single lot was cast. This difference shows John has the Septuagint version of Psalm 22 in mind:
διεμερίσαντο τὰ ἱμάτιά μου ἑαυτοῖς καὶ ἐπὶ τὸν ἱματισμόν μου ἔβαλον κλῆρον (NA28)
διεμερίσαντο τὰ ἱμάτιά μου ἑαυτοῖς καὶ ἐπὶ τὸν ἱματισμόν μου ἔβαλον κλῆρον (LXX)
John's citation is verbatim.
The singular casting of a lot does not materially affect the fulfillment of the Psalm. It shows John is pointing the reader to the Greek text of the OT.
The article of clothing which was preserved in one piece is specifically a tunic [χιτών] which is found in some significant places. Two in particular:
- This was the piece of clothing the LORD made for the first man and woman when they left the Garden of Eden (Genesis 3:21).
- Just as the first man received a tunic from the LORD God; one of the Roman soldiers received a tunic from the Lord Jesus.
- The garment for the High Priest (Exodus 28:4).
- Jesus is the true High Priest (e.g. Hebrews 10:21)
The emphasis on not tearing the garment invites a comparison to the clothing of the High Priest which is not supposed to be torn:
The priest who is chief among his brothers, on whose head the anointing oil is poured and who has been consecrated to wear the garments, shall not let the hair of his head hang loose nor tear his clothes. (Leviticus 21:10 ESV) 1
In particular, there is a connection to the High Priest is found on the Day of Atonement:
He shall put on the holy linen coat and shall have the linen undergarment on his body, and he shall tie the linen sash around his waist, and wear the linen turban; these are the holy garments. He shall bathe his body in water and then put them on. (Leviticus 16:4 ESV)
καὶ χιτῶνα λινοῦν ἡγιασμένον ἐνδύσεται καὶ περισκελὲς λινοῦν ἔσται ἐπὶ τοῦ χρωτὸς αὐτοῦ καὶ ζώνῃ λινῇ ζώσεται καὶ κίδαριν λινῆν περιθήσεται ἱμάτια ἅγιά ἐστιν καὶ λούσεται ὕδατι πᾶν τὸ σῶμα αὐτοῦ καὶ ἐνδύσεται αὐτά (LXX)
The tunic is removed and left in the Holy Place:
“Then Aaron shall come into the tent of meeting and shall take off the linen garments that he put on when he went into the Holy Place and shall leave them there. (Leviticus 16:23 ESV)
Therefore Mark and Matthew record the tearing of the Temple veil opening the entrance to the Most Holy Place and John presents Jesus as the High Priest, who is and makes the sacrifice and leaves His tunic outside the Most Holy Place.
1. The crown of thorns fulfills this requirement