According to LSJ, “[ὅλος] may either precede the Art[icle] or follow the Subst[antive].”1 Likewise, Thayer (translating Wilke) states that ὅλος is “usually placed before a substantive which has the article,” but he also provides numerous examples where “it is placed after a substantive which has the article.”2
That being said, the Synoptic parallel of Matt. 26:59 and Mark 14:55 seems to suggest that there is no difference in meaning:
- Matt. 26:59 (=τὸ συνέδριον ὅλον)
ΝΘʹ οἱ δὲ ἀρχιερεῖς καὶ οἱ πρεσβύτεροι καὶ τὸ συνέδριον ὅλον ἐζήτουν ψευδομαρτυρίαν κατὰ τοῦ Ἰησοῦ ὅπως αὐτὸν θανατώσωσιν
- Mark 14:55 (=ὅλον τὸ συνέδριον)
ΝΕʹ οἱ δὲ ἀρχιερεῖς καὶ ὅλον τὸ συνέδριον ἐζήτουν κατὰ τοῦ Ἰησοῦ μαρτυρίαν εἰς τὸ θανατῶσαι αὐτόν καὶ οὐχ εὕρισκον
It is noteworthy that Matthew has ἐν ὅλῃ rather than ἐξ ὅλης.3 However, Luke,4 Mark,5 and the LXX of Deu. 6:5 have ἐξ ὅλης. The Hebrew text has בְּכָל (bĕkāl), and while the preposition ב is perhaps most often translated by the Greek preposition ἐν (hence Matthew’s Greek text), we cannot simply dismiss the witnesses that each have ἐξ ὅλης.
I would tranlsate ἐξ ὅλης as “out of...entire,” that is, “You shall love the Lord your God out of your entire heart, and out of your entire soul, and out of your entire mind, and out of your entire strength.” This seems to emphasize the origin of the love expressed towards God—that it emanates from the totality of one’s inmost being.
On the other hand, “with all...,” as the literal translation of בְּכָל, which Matthew seems to convey, seems to emphasize that the heart, soul, and mind (according to Matthew’s Greek text) are the instruments with which one expresses their love toward God.
Liddell, Henry George; Scott, Robert; et al. A Greek-English Lexicon. 9th ed. Oxford: Clarendon, 1940.
Wilke, Christian Gottlob. A Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament: Being Grimm Wilke’s Clavis Novi Testamenti. Trans. Thayer, Joseph Henry.Ed. Grimm, Carl Ludwig Wilibald. Rev. ed. New York: American Book, 1889.
1 p. 1128
2 p. 444
3 Matt. 22:37
4 Luke 10:27
5 Mark 12:30