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(KJV)Matthew 22:31-32

But as touching the resurrection of the dead, have ye not read that which was spoken unto you by God, saying, [32] I am the God of Abraham, and the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob? God is not the God of the dead, but of the living.

(KJV)Exodus 3:6

Moreover he said, I am the God of thy father, the God of Abraham, the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob. And Moses hid his face; for he was afraid to look upon God.

Its a little puzzling how the words spoken by God to Moses in Exodus 3:6 which Christ quotes in Matthew 22:31-32 as proof of the resurrection of the dead .

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Christ is pointing out that God stated "I am the God of ..." not "I was the God of ...". If the soul were not immortal, He would have stated otherwise. The explanation is summarized in Theophylact's commentary:

By using Moses (v. 23-28) they were intent on overturning the doctrine of the resurrection, but He, also by using Moses, convinces them quoting, "I am the God of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob." What Christ means is this: God is not the God of that which is not, but of that which exists and is. For God did not say, "I was," but "I am." Even though they had died, they live in hope of resurrection.

Explanation of the Gospel According to Matthew (tr. Chyrsostom Press, 1992), p. 192

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  • "If the soul were not immortal" is far too strong a condition. It's sufficient to say "If Abraham, Isaac, and Moses hadn't received salvation". There's no reason to conclude that they, or anyone else, inherently has an immortal soul. Sep 26 '21 at 14:09
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Luke's account is a little more explicit:

37 “But even Moses showed in the burning bush passage that the dead are raised, when he called the Lord ‘the God of Abraham, the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob.’ 38 For He is not the God of the dead but of the living, for all live to Him.”
-Luke 20:37-38 (NKJV)

While death for the righteous is acknowledged, it is not considered permanent. God doesn't consider them truly dead, for they will be raised up at the last day to live forevermore:

39 “This is the will of the Father who sent Me, that of all He has given Me I should lose nothing, but should raise it up at the last day. 40 And this is the will of Him who sent Me, that everyone who sees the Son and believes in Him may have everlasting life; and I will raise him up at the last day.”
-John 6:39-40 (NKJV)

Jesus said to her [Martha], “I am the resurrection and the life. He who believes in Me, though he may die, he shall live.”
-John 11:25 (NKJV)

God is not the God of the dead, because there is no remembrance of Him in death:

18 For Sheol [the grave] cannot thank You,
Death cannot praise You;
Those who go down to the pit cannot hope for Your truth.
19 The living, the living man, he shall praise You,
As I do this day....
-Isaiah 38:18-19 (NKJV)

For in death there is no remembrance of You;
In the grave [Sheol] who will give You thanks?
-Psalm 6:5 (NKJV)

“What profit is there in my blood,
When I go down to the pit?
Will the dust praise You?
Will it declare Your truth?”
-Psalm 30:9 (NKJV)

10 Will You work wonders for the dead?
Shall the dead arise and praise You? Selah
11 Shall Your lovingkindness be declared in the grave?
Or Your faithfulness in the place of destruction?
-Psalm 88:10-11 (NKJV)

The dead do not praise the Lord,
Nor any who go down into silence.
-Psalm 115:17 (NKJV)

God continued to call Himself the God of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob long after they had died. This is because, to paraphrase Jesus' words to Martha, “though they may die, yet shall they live.”

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Exodus 3:

6a Moreover he said, I am the God of thy father, the God of Abraham, the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob.

Proof by contradiction:
Assume there is no resurrection of the dead.

Abraham is dead, Isaac is dead, and Jacob is dead. They are forever dead. Never to come alive again.

Exodus 3:6a is saying this: I am the God of the dead.

But according to Jesus in Matthew 22:

32b God is not the God of the dead, but of the living.

We've found a contradiction. Therefore the assumption is false. Its negation is true.

Indeed, there is the resurrection of the dead.

In what sense does Exodus 3:6 prove the resurrection of the dead as quoted in Matthew 22:31-32?

In the formal sense of proof by contradiction.

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Luke 16;20-32 Jesus teaches of Lazarus being taken to God, and with Abraham. But this is the case for the wicked too, as we see they resurrect of body (1 Cor 15) of the body even if their soul may be mortal.
2 Corinthians 5:10

For we must all appear before the judgment seat of Christ; that every one may receive the things done in his body, according to that he hath done, whether it be good or bad.

Consider Satan's sentence is not carried out yet. Judgment Day and the Lake of Fire not existing until the end of the Lord's Day, Revelation 20. That puts emphasis on the fact God is not the God of the dead but living.

Ecclesiastes 12:7

Then shall the dust return to the earth as it was: and the spirit shall return unto God who gave it.

1 Thess 4:13 - end, Paul explains the living, cant precede those who've already died to be with God. Christ is our standard for learning life after death. Christ died and resurrected That day of Spiritual body to Paradise. And The added Transfiguration later. No marvel that Resurrection after death is the norm for all souls (not the flesh transfiguration though).

Matthew 22:32

'I am the God of Abraham, and the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob?' God is not the God of the dead, but of the living.

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In what sense does Exodus 3:6 prove the resurrection of the dead as quoted in Matthew 22:31-32?

Jesus was talking with the Sadducees, who did not believe in the resurrection, and declares to them; (Matthew 22:31-32)

(KJV)Matthew 22:31-32

But as touching the resurrection of the dead, have ye not read that which was spoken unto you by God, saying, [32] I am the God of Abraham, and the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob? God is not the God of the dead, but of the living.

By saying these words that "God is not the God of the dead, but of the living", Jesus confirmed that as far as God is concerned this, faithful servant of God still lived in God's memory and that he will be resurrected:

John 5:28-29 NASB

28 Do not be amazed at this; for [a]a time is coming when all who are in the tombs will hear His voice, 29 and will come out: those who did the good deeds to a resurrection of life, those who committed the bad deeds to a resurrection of judgment.

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