And does not infer causation in Greek nor English, unless there is other context to definitively create an implication. For example:
I am a skilled juggler and can walk on my hands.1
The above tells you nothing about the relationship between these two attributes. I may use them in the same sentence and imply a link between the two ideas, but that link is not necessarily causative. It might be, but this is not implied by the construction.
In your quoted verse from 1 Corinthians 13, the point is that the author is building together various attributes to create a hyperbolic extreme. The point is not that being a prophet causes the rest of these things to be true, but rather that the reader is being requested to imagine somebody who has the gift of prophecy and can fathom all mysteries and can fathom all knowledge and has a faith which can move mountains and yet does not have love.
The hyperbolic extreme of such a talented person is contrasted against the lack of love, to make the clear point that no matter how incredibly talented somebody may be, it's no use if this person does not also possess love.
1 - Incidentally, this is not a made-up example. I really can do both these things, and they have no causative relationship. And if I were to do both of these things at the same time, and yet did not have love, I would still be nothing.