I question all the Christian theology, as a quick-and-dirty-hoping-no-one-notices type of efforts to quickly validate their theology concerning [satan/שטן], that circumvents any proper linguistic analysis.
I object to the frequent misconception that [שטן/satan] directly means "adversary". "Adversary" is merely an implied idiomatic placeholder word.
As demonstrated by Numbers 22:22, where an errand-executioner/mlakh of Hashem stood to [hinder/satan/שטן] Balaam.
But many commentaries acrobatically stretch the language construct to say
"angel" of the LORD stood as "adversary" against Balaam.
simply to crowd-source the word as "adversary" to coagulate it into one single referentiable meme. Memes are convenient, low maintenance, imprecise, placeholders. Another meme for [satan/שטן] is "prosecutor".
Incidentally, "angel" is another crowd-sourced meme for [מלאך/MLAKh], because Genesis 2, G'd Himself is a [מלאך/MLAKh] - where G'd rests from His [מלאכת/MLAKheT] which is a gerundish of [מלאך/MLAKh] (as engineer to engine). Or when Jonah was asked by his shipmates "What is your commission [מלאכת/MLAKheT]?". Or when Jacob sent his errand-runners [מלאכים/MLAKhIM] to his brother.
Therefore, we cannot trust crowdsourced theological memes as accurate. They are for the consumption of people who interested in only a quick-and-dirty comprehension of the Bible.
We do not even have to depend on any expert opinion, to see that Numbers 22:22 is the watershed that provides the fundamental meaning of [satan/שטן] - where a godly errand-runner becomes a [satan/שטן].
Numbers 22:22 is the overwhelming question where christian/islam theology has to answer to - why is [satan/שטן] a godly person in this verse???
That is because [satan/שטן] is merely a simple verb that means [hinder/impede] or its verbal-noun [hindrance].
It is quite well-known that [satan/שטן] in the whole book of Job is actually [ha-satan/השטן].
It is not possible or correct to directly map the Hebrew definite article to the English definite article [the]. Being demonstrated by words/phrases such as
- [ha-yom/היום] = this-day (among other days) = today.
- [ha-zman ha-zeh/הזמן הזה] = this particular moment (among a continuum of moments)
- [ha-melekh/המלך] = the-this king (among other kings).
Therefore, the [satan/שטן] in Job is not a personal name, but an instance of a particular person being a hindrance/impediment. The [satan/שטן] in Job is a role assigned to unspecified person. And there is no assurance the same person is being assigned that role throughout the book of Job.
As far as 1Chron 21 is concerned, the Hebrew may be read this way
- ויעמד שטן
- על ישראל
- יוסת את
- דויד למנות את ישראל
- David's classification of Israel
[מנה] is not merely "counting", but a census to categorize - as used in Genesis "each to its kind".
Where the parallel passage is 2 Samuel 24:
- ויספ אף יי לחרות בישראל
- then increase anger of Hashem in heat with/in Israel
- ויסת את דוד בהם
- and resistant/apprehended towards David with/in them
- לך מנה את ישראל ואת יהודה
- !go! conduct-census of Israel and Judah
This verse simply says
The anger of Hashem then increased upon Israel in apprehension against David for them saying "Go on, go on and conduct a census/categorization of Israel and Judah" and let's see what the consequences are.
When the heroic general Yoav recognized David's delusion and folly and tries to dissuade him from falling into that trap.
1Chron 21:17 clearly clarifies - that G'd was not "inciting" but "apprehended" towards David's census, when David admits it was he himself who initiated the evil act.