Does Philippians 2:7, 2:8 mean that Jesus was not fully human?

ISV Php 2:7 but did empty himself, the form of a servant having taken, in the likeness of men having been made, Php 2:8 and in fashion having been found as a man, he humbled himself, having become obedient unto death--death even of a cross,

NA1904 7 ἀλλὰ ἑαυτὸν ἐκένωσεν μορφὴν δούλου λαβών, ἐν ὁμοιώματι ἀνθρώπων γενόμενος· 8 καὶ σχήματι εὑρεθεὶς ὡς ἄνθρωπος ἐταπείνωσεν ἑαυτὸν γενόμενος ὑπήκοος μέχρι θανάτου, θανάτου δὲ σταυροῦ.

ὁμοίωμα, ατος, τό (ὁμοιόω; Pla., Parm. 132d; 133d, Phdr. 250b; Ps.-Aristot., Int. 1, 16a, 7f; SIG 669, 52; PFay 106, 20; LXX; En 31:2; Just., D. 94, 3). ① state of having common experiences, likeness (ἐν ὁμ. τυγχάνειν ‘liken’ Theoph. Ant. 2, 16 [p. 140, 12]) οὗ (Χριστοῦ) καὶ κατὰ τὸ ὁμοίωμα ἡμᾶς … οὕτως ἐγερεῖ ὁ πατὴρ αὐτοῦ in accordance with whose likeness (=just as God raised him) his Father will also raise us in this way ITr 9:2. This is prob. the place for Ro 6:5 εἰ σύμφυτοι γεγόναμεν τῷ ὁμοιώματι τ. θανάτου αὐτοῦ if we have been united (i.e. αὐτῷ with him; cp. vs. 4 συνετάφημεν αὐτῷ) in the likeness of his death (=in the same death that he died); but s. PGächter, ZKT 54, 1930, 88–92; OKuss, D. Römerbr. I, ’63, 301. On the syntax, B-D-F §194, 2; Rob. 528. ἁμαρτάνειν ἐπὶ τῷ ὁμοιώματι τῆς παραβάσεως Ἀδάμ sin in the likeness of Adam’s transgression (=just as Adam did, who transgressed one of God’s express commands) 5:14.—Abstr. for concr. τὰ ὁμοιώματα = τὰ ὅμοια: ὃς ἃν τὰ ὁμοιώματα ποιῇ τοῖς ἔθνεσιν whoever does things similar to (the deeds of) the gentiles = acts as the gentiles do Hm 4, 1, 9. περὶ τοιούτων τινῶν ὁμοιωμάτων πονηρῶν (thoughts) about any other wicked things similar to these 4, 1, 1.—ἐν τίνι ὁμοιώματι παραβάλωμεν αὐτήν; with what corresponding thing can we compare it? Mk 4:30 v.l. ② state of being similar in appearance, image, form ⓐ image, copy (Dt 4:16ff; 1 Km 6:5; 4 Km 16:10; 1 Macc 3:48; Just., D. 94, 3) ὁμοίωμα εἰκόνος φθαρτοῦ ἀνθρώπου (s. εἰκών 3; pleonasm as Maximus Tyr. 27, 3c εἰς μορφῆς εἶδος) Ro 1:23 (cp. Ps 105:20). ⓑ form, appearance (schol. on Apollon. Rhod. 4, 825–31a ὁμ. κ. πρόσωπον γυναικός=figure and face of a woman; Dt 4:12; Josh 22:28; Ezk 1:16; Jos., Ant. 8, 195; Hippol., Ref. 5, 19, 20; 7, 28, 3) τὰ ὁμοιώματα τῶν ἀκρίδων ὅμοια (v.l. ὅμοιοι) ἵπποις the locusts resembled horses in appearance Rv 9:7. ③ There is no general agreement on the mng. in two related passages in which Paul uses our word in speaking of Christ’s earthly life. The expressions ἐν ὁμοιώματι ἀνθρώπων (P46, Marcion, Orig.: ἀνθρώπου) Phil 2:7 and ἐν ὁμοιώματι σαρκὸς ἁμαρτίας Ro 8:3 could mean that the Lord in his earthly ministry possessed a completely human form and that his physical body was capable of sinning as human bodies are, or that he had the form of a human being and was looked upon as such (cp. En 31:2 ἐν ὁμ. w. gen.=‘similar to’, ‘looking like’; Aesop, Fab. 140 H. of Hermes ὁμοιωθεὶς ἀνθρώπῳ), but without losing his identity as a divine being even in this world. In the light of what Paul says about Jesus in general it is prob. that he uses our word to bring out both that Jesus in his earthly career was similar to sinful humans and yet not totally like them (s. JWeiss, Das Urchristentum1917, 376ff; cp. FGillman, CBQ 49, ’87, 597–604).—S. the lit. on ἁρπαγμός.—DELG s.v. ὅμοιο. M-M. EDNT. TW. Sv.

Arndt, W., Danker, F. W., & Bauer, W. (2000). A Greek-English lexicon of the New Testament and other early Christian literature (3rd ed., p. 707). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

σχῆμα, ατος, τό (fr. the same root as ἔχω, cp. 2 aor. inf. σχεῖν; Aeschyl., Thu.+; loanw. in rabb.; in various senses ‘bearing, manner, deportment’ cp. Lat. ‘habitus’) ① the generally recognized state or form in which someth. appears, outward appearance, form, shape of pers. Hv 5:1 (Menyllus: 295 Fgm. 2 Jac. Ἄρης ἐν σχήματι ποιμένος). σχήματι εὑρεθεὶς ὡς ἄνθρωπος Phil 2:7 (Just., A I, 55, 4 ἀνθρώπειον σχῆμα; cp. Lucian, Somn. 13 ἀφεὶς … τιμὴν κ. δόξαν … κ. δύναμιν σχῆμα δουλοπρεπὲς ἀναλήψῃ; Jos., Ant. 10, 11 a king who exchanges his kingly robes for sackcloth and takes on a σχῆμα ταπεινόν; for the σχῆμα ταπεινόν cp. also Appian, Syr. 40 §206; for assoc. of σχῆμα and ὄνομα cp. Cass. Dio 42, 24). ② the functional aspect of someth., way of life, of things (Just., D. 105, 2 al. τοῦ σταυροῦ) παράγει τὸ σχῆμα τοῦ κόσμου τούτου this world in its present form is passing away 1 Cor 7:31 (Eur., Bacch. 832 τὸ σχ. τοῦ κόσμου; Philostrat., Vi. Apoll. 8, 7 p. 312, 9 τὸ σχ. τοῦ κόσμου τοῦδε; PGM 4, 1139 σχῆμα κόσμου). S. μορφή.—B. 874. DELG s.v. ἔχω. M-M. TW.

Arndt, W., Danker, F. W., & Bauer, W. (2000). A Greek-English lexicon of the New Testament and other early Christian literature (3rd ed., p. 981). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.


Yes. ὁμοίωμα: homoióma H3667 is only used six times in the NT Canon. Five of those are from Paul, and the sixth is in Revelation:

"And the shapes (ὁμοιώματα: likeness) of the locusts were like (ὅμοια) unto horses prepared unto battle; and on their heads were as it were crowns like gold, and their faces were as the faces of men." Revelation 9:7

The first word ὁμοιώματα is the same that Paul uses. It means: likeness, similitude. The second word ὅμοια means "like, similar". Both words are from the root ὁμοῦ, which means "together". So John is saying:

"And the similitude of the locus were similar to horses"

Here is the biblehub concordances for ὁμοιώματα:


It's only used in the Septuagint in Psalm 105 and Ezekiel uses it a few times. Notice Thayer's Greek Lexicon gives every instance that Paul uses ὁμοιώματα it's own definition of "equality or identity". Pretty sneaky, huh? Would this mean Romans 6:5 says we have literally died "the same death" as Messiah? That's a topic for a separate question.

So unless locusts are horses, then this word is meant to show a similarity between two distinctive entities/concepts.

Thank you.

  • -1 for inaccuracy. The Greek text of Rev. 9:7 states, «Καὶ τὰ ὁμοιώματα τῶν ἀκρίδων ὅμοια ἵπποις ἡτοιμασμένοις εἰς πόλεμον». «τὰ ὁμοιώματα», translated as “the shapes,” is from the lemma «ὁμοίωμα». However, you placed «ὁμοίωμα» as though it were translated by “like,” but the Greek word translated into English in this verse as “like” is «ὅμοια», from the lemma «ὅμοιος». Not the same lemma.
    – user862
    Jul 23 '16 at 18:52
  • Thank you Simply a Christian. My mistake. I'll fix it and add more details when I get a chance.
    – Cannabijoy
    Jul 23 '16 at 19:49
  • Google search yields no matches for «ὁμοῦn». Where did you come up with that?
    – user862
    Jul 23 '16 at 23:20
  • Ha! I accedently wrote an "n" after ὁμοῦ. Sorry, I'm trying to do this from my phone. Thanks @SimplyaChristian, I fixed it.
    – Cannabijoy
    Jul 23 '16 at 23:46

Gen. 5:3 "And Adam ... begat a son in his own likeness, after his image; and called his name Seth."

Seth was as much man as Adam was. It is possible to be "in the likeness of something & also to be of the same substance. In fact, to be in something's likeness implies that you are of the same substance.

  • Weelll... Adam was made in God's likeness, no? And Seth was made in the likeness of Adam but was not Adam.
    – user10231
    Jul 23 '16 at 19:13
  • Yes, but my point was that Adam & Seth were of the same substance. Are you not trying to argue that the statement proves Christ to be of a different substance? I don't see how it does. And remember Seth was in Adam & part of Adam even before he was born(Heb.7:10 Jul 23 '16 at 19:21
  • But Adam was made in God's likeness. You seem to be ignoring that.
    – user10231
    Jul 23 '16 at 19:25
  • No, it simply doesn't prove your point to point out one instance were something is made in the "likeness" of something of a different substance, unless you can prove that it ALWAYS is that way. It's up to you to prove that Adam & Seth were of completely different substances. Not to jump to an example that you prefer. I could talk about how Adam was originally made of God's image as far as he had Gods breath-or Spirit, or that it is pointing to Christ, it's just not necessary. Jul 23 '16 at 19:36
  • Ah, how strong are the chains of tradition.
    – user10231
    Jul 24 '16 at 0:47

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