I have two questions about the Greek grammar in the divorce teachings in Matthew 19 and Mark 10.
(1) In Matthew 19:5, the phrase "and said" (καὶ εἶπεν) appears before the quotation of Genesis 2:24. Is this action performed by God (who is mentioned in the previous verse) or by Jesus? In other words, should it be read as "and God said" or "and Jesus said"? The fact that Genesis 2:24 seems to be either a statement by Adam or an editorial comment by Moses suggests the latter reading, which also would fit well with the omission of the phrase in the parallel saying in Mark 10:7. (On the other hand, if the action is performed by God, then that would fit with the idea of God joining the spouses in the next verse, as Jesus could then be interpreting the quotation from Genesis as a divine command.) I am not sure, however, whether the Greek grammar allows for the latter reading.
(2) In Matthew 19:8, what does the phrase "but from the beginning it was not this way" (ἀρχῆς δὲ οὐ γέγονεν οὕτως) refer to? Does it refer to the hardheartedness, the permission to divorce, or both? Or does the grammar taken by itself not settle the issue?