In Judges 6:12,14,16 we have the angel of the LORD appear to Gideon, but then he is just referred to by LORD, that is, just the tetragrammaton.

12 And the angel of the LORD[?] appeared to him and said to him, ... 14 And the LORD[?] turned to him and said, ... 16 And the LORD[?] said to him,... (ESV)

The note in my ESV Bible told me the Greek Septuagint has "angel of the LORD" in v14 and 16, which I then confirmed. It uses the same phrase, ὁ ἄγγελος κυρίου, in all three verses.

However, all major translations from KJV to ESV just use "LORD."

What texts are these translations basing this on and are there any other variations besides the Septuagint?

Any record or note on why the differences?

It is my observation that slight variations in the LXX often seem more complimentary of Christian and Trinitarian interpretations than the MT. However, in this case, it would seem to be that just using the Tetragrammaton to refer to the angel of the LORD actually lends support for it being a Christophany more than the LXX.

  • The translations are based on the MT.
    – bjorne
    Aug 13 '16 at 16:30
  • @bjorne Please don't try to answer in comments. If you have evidence to support that claim and can show what the MT says that is relevant then you should post an answer.
    – Joshua
    Aug 13 '16 at 16:55

Other than the Septuagint, all the early witnesses agree on verse 12, 14, and 16 in this regard. Here's what we have:

  • The Qumran Judges fragment (4QJudgA) reads מלאך יהוה (angel of YHWH) on verse 12 and does not include verses 14 and 16.
  • The Masoretic Text reads מלאך יהוה on verse 12, and then just יהוה (YHWH) on verses 14 and 16.
  • The Targum of Jonathan ben Uzziel (4th or 5th century but based on earlier traditions) reads מלאכא דיי (angel of the Lord) on verse 12, and then just יי (the Lord) for verses 14 and 16.
  • Jerome's Vulgate (4th century) says "Angelus Domini" for verse 12 and just "Dominus" for 14 and 16.
  • The Septuagint, as we've seen, reads αγγελος κυριου in 12, 14, and 16.

The Septuagint seems to be the outlier here.

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